Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00694-3
Title: Immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphates as plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment
Authors: Chua, Xin Ying
Chai, Yuek Ling 
Chew, Wee Siong 
Chong, Joyce R 
Ang, Hui Li
Xiang, Ping 
Camara, Kaddy
Howell, Amy R
Torta, Federico 
Wenk, Markus R 
Hilal, Saima 
Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
Chen, Christopher P
Herr, Deron R 
Lai, Mitchell KP 
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Clinical Neurology
Neurosciences
Neurosciences & Neurology
Alzheimer's disease
Biomarkers
Immunomodulation
Neuroinflammation
Sphingosine-1-phosphate
Vascular cognitive impairment
BLOOD-BASED BIOMARKERS
SMALL VESSEL DISEASE
CEREBROVASCULAR-DISEASE
DEMENTIA
SPHINGOLIPIDS
INHIBITION
FINGOLIMOD
DIAGNOSIS
MODEL
Issue Date: 30-Sep-2020
Publisher: BMC
Citation: Chua, Xin Ying, Chai, Yuek Ling, Chew, Wee Siong, Chong, Joyce R, Ang, Hui Li, Xiang, Ping, Camara, Kaddy, Howell, Amy R, Torta, Federico, Wenk, Markus R, Hilal, Saima, Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy, Chen, Christopher P, Herr, Deron R, Lai, Mitchell KP (2020-09-30). Immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphates as plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment. ALZHEIMERS RESEARCH & THERAPY 12 (1). ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00694-3
Abstract: Background: There has been ongoing research impetus to uncover novel blood-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and related cerebrovascular disease (CEVD)-associated conditions within the spectrum of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Sphingosine-1-phosphates (S1Ps) are signaling lipids which act on the S1PR family of cognate G-protein-coupled receptors and have been shown to modulate neuroinflammation, a process known to be involved in both neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the status of peripheral S1P in AD and VCI is at present unclear. Methods: We obtained baseline bloods from individuals recruited into an ongoing longitudinal cohort study who had normal cognition (N = 80); cognitive impairment, no dementia (N = 160); AD (N = 113); or VaD (N = 31), along with neuroimaging assessments of cerebrovascular diseases. Plasma samples were processed for the measurements of major S1P species: d16:1, d17:1, d18:0, and d18:1, along with pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Furthermore, in vitro effects of S1Ps on cytokine expression were also studied in an astrocytoma cell line and in rodent primary astrocytes. Results: Of the S1Ps species measured, only d16:1 S1P was significantly reduced in the plasma of VaD, but not AD, patients, while the d18:1 to d16:1 ratios were increased in all cognitive subgroups (CIND, AD, and VaD). Furthermore, d18:1 to d16:1 ratios correlated with levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF. In both primary astrocytes and an astroglial cell line, treatment with d16:1 or d18:1 S1P resulted in the upregulation of mRNA transcripts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with d18:1 showing a stronger effect than d16:1. Interestingly, co-treatment assays showed that the addition of d16:1 reduced the extent of d18:1-mediated gene expression, indicating that d16:1 may function to "fine-tune"the pro-inflammatory effects of d18:1. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that plasma d16:1 S1P may be useful as a diagnostic marker for VCI, while the d18:1 to d16:1 S1P ratio is an index of dysregulated S1P-mediated immunomodulation leading to chronic inflammation-associated neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular damage.
Source Title: ALZHEIMERS RESEARCH & THERAPY
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/188320
ISSN: 17589193
DOI: 10.1186/s13195-020-00694-3
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