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Title: Current trends and future scope in 3D printing for surgical management of spine pathologies
Authors: Kumar, N 
Alathur Ramakrishnan, S 
Lopez, KG 
Chin, BZ
Devyapriya, S
Kumar, L
Baskar, S
Vellayappan, BA 
Fuh, JYH 
Anantharajan, SK
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2022
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Citation: Kumar, N, Alathur Ramakrishnan, S, Lopez, KG, Chin, BZ, Devyapriya, S, Kumar, L, Baskar, S, Vellayappan, BA, Fuh, JYH, Anantharajan, SK (2022-06-01). Current trends and future scope in 3D printing for surgical management of spine pathologies. Bioprinting 26 : e00197-e00197. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: 3D printing technology has increasing applications in spine surgery due to its many realised and potential benefits. This review aims to explore the current and future potential of 3D printing technology in various aspects of spine surgery. The ability of 3D printing technology to geometrically mimic the spinal anatomy enables the manufacturing of realistic anatomical models which can aid in patient education and surgical training. Current applications of 3D printing in spine surgery can be broadly categorised under patient-specific applications or condition-specific applications. 3D printed patient-specific applications centre around 3D printing's ability to mimic/complement the geometry of anatomical structures. This gives rise to custom implants which improve the efficiency & clinical outcome of surgical intervention. Similarly, 3D printed surgical templates improve surgical accuracy and safety. Spinal pathologies such as osteoporosis and/or tumour involvement have an adverse effect on the spine's biomechanical properties, thereby placing more stringent requirements on implants used. Condition-specific applications serve to mitigate such adverse effects through design modifications and 3D printing's ability to work with a wide range of materials to alter an implant's biomechanical properties. The ideal implant should be both patient-specific and condition-specific to maximise the compatibility of the implant with the body and the effectiveness of instrumentation & adjuvant treatments. As the state of 3D printing technology advances, it would result in better resolution of printing, improved understanding of the effects of scaffolds & lattices, and the availability of more 3D printable implant materials. This advancement would allow for more optimal patient-specific & condition-specific implants and emerging applications such as biodegradable implants & localised drug delivery system.
Source Title: Bioprinting
ISSN: 2405-8866
DOI: 10.1016/j.bprint.2022.e00197
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