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Title: Impact of COVID-19 on Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Singapore
Authors: Lim, Shir Lynn 
Shahidah, Nur 
Saffari, Seyed Ehsan 
Ng, Qin Xiang
Ho, Andrew Fu Wah 
Leong, Benjamin Sieu-Hon 
Arulanandam, Shalini 
Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid 
Ong, Marcus Eng Hock 
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Environmental Sciences
Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
coronavirus disease 2019
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
return of spontaneous circulation
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Lim, Shir Lynn, Shahidah, Nur, Saffari, Seyed Ehsan, Ng, Qin Xiang, Ho, Andrew Fu Wah, Leong, Benjamin Sieu-Hon, Arulanandam, Shalini, Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid, Ong, Marcus Eng Hock (2021-04-01). Impact of COVID-19 on Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Singapore. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 18 (7). ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic on out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Singapore. We used data from the Singapore Civil Defence Force to compare the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of all Emergency Medical Services (EMS)‐attended adult OHCA during the pandemic (January–May 2020) and pre‐pandemic (January–May 2018 and 2019) periods. Pre‐hospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was the primary outcome. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for the characteristics of OHCA. Of the 3893 OHCA patients (median age 72 years, 63.7% males), 1400 occurred during the pandemic period and 2493 during the pre‐pandemic period. Compared with the pre‐pandemic period, OHCAs during the pandemic period more likely occurred at home (aOR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24–1.75) and were witnessed (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.49–1.97). They received less bystander CPR (aOR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.61–0.81) despite 65% of witnessed arrests by a family member, and waited longer for EMS (OR ≥ 10 min: 1.71, 95% CI 1.46–2.00). Pre‐hospital ROSC was less likely during the pandemic period (aOR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.53–0.84). The pandemic saw increased OHCA incidence and worse outcomes in Singapore, likely indirect effects of COVID‐19.
ISSN: 16617827
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073646
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