Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1298-4
Title: A dual memory theory of the testing effect
Authors: Rickard, Timothy C
Pan, Steven C 
Keywords: Social Sciences
Psychology, Mathematical
Psychology, Experimental
Psychology
Retrieval practice
Testing effect
Test-enhanced learning
Memory
Quantitative model
RETRIEVAL PRACTICE
NAME GAME
CLINICAL-APPLICATION
RETENTION INTERVAL
ENHANCE RETENTION
IMPROVES MEMORY
CUED-RECALL
POWER-LAW
BENEFIT
RECOGNITION
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2018
Publisher: SPRINGER
Citation: Rickard, Timothy C, Pan, Steven C (2018-06-01). A dual memory theory of the testing effect. PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW 25 (3) : 847-869. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1298-4
Abstract: A new theoretical framework for the testing effect—the finding that retrieval practice is usually more effective for learning than are other strategies—is proposed, the empirically supported tenet of which is that separate memories form as a consequence of study and test events. A simplest case quantitative model is derived from that framework for the case of cued recall. With no free parameters, that model predicts both proportion correct in the test condition and the magnitude of the testing effect across 10 experiments conducted in our laboratory, experiments that varied with respect to material type, retention interval, and performance in the restudy condition. The model also provides the first quantitative accounts of (a) the testing effect as a function of performance in the restudy condition, (b) the upper bound magnitude of the testing effect, (c) the effect of correct answer feedback, (d) the testing effect as a function of retention interval for the cases of feedback and no feedback, and (e) the effect of prior learning method on subsequent learning through testing. Candidate accounts of several other core phenomena in the literature, including test-potentiated learning, recognition versus cued recall training effects, cued versus free recall final test effects, and other select transfer effects, are also proposed. Future prospects and relations to other theories are discussed.
Source Title: PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/228399
ISSN: 10699384
15315320
DOI: 10.3758/s13423-017-1298-4
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