Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1177/1747021820968483
Title: Where and how to learn: The interactive benefits of contextual variation, restudying, and retrieval practice for learning
Authors: Imundo, Megan N
Pan, Steven C 
Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
Bjork, Robert A
Keywords: Social Sciences
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Psychology, Biological
Physiology
Psychology
Psychology, Experimental
Context
contextual variation
retrieval practice
test-enhanced learning
bifurcation model
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
DEPENDENT MEMORY
TESTS
ACQUISITION
RETENTION
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2021
Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Citation: Imundo, Megan N, Pan, Steven C, Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon, Bjork, Robert A (2021-03-01). Where and how to learn: The interactive benefits of contextual variation, restudying, and retrieval practice for learning. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 74 (3) : 413-424. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747021820968483
Abstract: Students are often advised to do all of their studying in one good place, but restudying to-be-learned material in a new context can enhance subsequent recall. We examined whether there are similar benefits for testing. In Experiment 1 (n = 106), participants studied a 36-word list and 48 hr later—when back in the same or a new context—either restudied or recalled the list without feedback. After another 48 hr, all participants free-recalled the list in a new context. Experiment 2 (n = 203) differed by having the testing-condition participants restudy the list before being tested. Across both experiments, testing in a new context reduced recall, which carried over to the final test, whereas restudying in a new context did not impair (and in Experiment 2, significantly enhanced) recall. These findings reveal critical interactions between contextual-variation and retrieval-practice effects, which we interpret as consistent with a distribution-of-memory-strengths framework.
Source Title: QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/228350
ISSN: 1747-0218
17470226
DOI: 10.1177/1747021820968483
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