Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042375
Title: The Gut-Skin Microbiota Axis and Its Role in Diabetic Wound Healing-A Review Based on Current Literature
Authors: Patel, Bharati Kadamb 
Patel, Kadamb Haribhai 
Huang, Ryan Yuki
Lee, Chuen Neng 
Moochhala, Shabbir M 
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Physical Sciences
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Chemistry, Multidisciplinary
Chemistry
microbiota
dysbiosis
probiotics
diabetes
wound healing
INNATE IMMUNE-RESPONSE
CLINICAL-PRACTICE
EPITHELIAL-CELLS
BARRIER FUNCTION
PROBIOTICS
INFECTION
BACTERIA
DIVERSITY
PATHOGENS
GROWTH
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2022
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Patel, Bharati Kadamb, Patel, Kadamb Haribhai, Huang, Ryan Yuki, Lee, Chuen Neng, Moochhala, Shabbir M (2022-02-01). The Gut-Skin Microbiota Axis and Its Role in Diabetic Wound Healing-A Review Based on Current Literature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 23 (4). ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042375
Abstract: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a growing concern worldwide as they pose complications in routine clinical practices such as diagnosis and management. Bacterial interactions on the skin surface are vital to the pathophysiology of DFU and may control delayed wound healing. The microbiota from our skin directly regulates cutaneous health and disease by interacting with the numerous cells involved in the wound healing mechanism. Commensal microbiota, in particular, interact with wound-repairing skin cells to enhance barrier regeneration. The observed microbes in DFU include Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, and several anaerobes. Skin commensal microbes, namely S. epidermidis, can regulate the gamma delta T cells and induce Perforin-2 expression. The increased expression of Perforin-2 by skin cells destroyed S. aureus within the cells, facilitating wound healing. Possible crosstalk between the human commensal microbiome and different cell types involved in cutaneous wound healing promotes the immune response and helps to maintain the barrier function in humans. Wound healing is a highly well-coordinated, complex mechanism; it can be devastating if interrupted. Skin microbiomes are being studied in relation to the gut-skin axis along with their effects on dermatologic conditions. The gut-skin axis illustrates the connection wherein the gut can impact skin health due to its immunological and metabolic properties. The precise mechanism underlying gut-skin microbial interactions is still unidentified, but the immune and endocrine systems are likely to be involved. Next-generation sequencing and the development of bioinformatics pipelines may considerably improve the understanding of the microbiome-skin axis involved in diabetic wound healing in a much more sophisticated way. We endeavor to shed light on the importance of these pathways in the pathomechanisms of the most prevalent inflammatory conditions including the diabetes wound healing, as well as how probiotics may intervene in the gut-skin axis.
Source Title: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/227082
ISSN: 1661-6596
1422-0067
DOI: 10.3390/ijms23042375
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