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Title: Determining environmental and anthropogenic factors which explain the global distribution of aedes aegypti and Ae. Albopictus
Authors: Sun, H. 
Jit, M.
Cook, A.R. 
Carrasco, L.R. 
Dickens, B.L. 
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Citation: Sun, H., Jit, M., Cook, A.R., Carrasco, L.R., Dickens, B.L. (2018). Determining environmental and anthropogenic factors which explain the global distribution of aedes aegypti and Ae. Albopictus. BMJ Global Health 3 (4) : e000801. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Abstract: background Responsible for considerable global human morbidity and mortality, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the primary vectors of several important human diseases, including dengue and yellow fever. Although numerous variables that affect mosquito survival and reproduction have been recorded at the local and regional scales, many remain untested at the global level, potentially confounding mapping efforts to date. Methods We develop a modelling ensemble of boosted regression trees and maximum entropy models using sets of variables previously untested at the global level to examine their performance in predicting the global distribution of these two vectors. The results show that accessibility, absolute humidity and annual minimum temperature are consistently the strongest predictors of mosquito presence. Both vectors are similar in their response to accessibility and humidity, but exhibit individual profiles for temperature. Their mapped ranges are therefore similar except at peripheral latitudes, where the range of Ae. albopictus extends further, a finding consistent with ongoing trapping studies. We show that variables previously identified as being relevant, including maximum and mean temperatures, enhanced vegetation index, relative humidity and population density, are comparatively weak performers. results The variables identified represent three key biological mechanisms. Cold tolerance is a critical biological parameter, controlling both species' distribution northwards, and to a lesser degree for Ae. albopictus which has consequent greater inland suitability in North America, Europe and East Asia. Absolute humidity restricts the distribution of both vectors from drier areas, where moisture availability is very low, and increases their suitability in coastal areas. The latter is exacerbated by accessibility with increased likelihood of vector importation due to greater potential for human and trade movement. Conclusion Accessibility, absolute humidity and annual minimum temperatures were the strongest and most robust global predictors of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus presence, which should be considered in control efforts and future distribution projections. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
Source Title: BMJ Global Health
ISSN: 20597908
DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000801
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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