Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1177/0962280219837656
Title: Handling ties in continuous outcomes for confounder adjustment with rank-ordered logit and its application to ordinal outcomes
Authors: Ning, Yilin 
Tan, Chuen Seng 
Maraki, Angeliki
Ho, Peh Joo
Hodgins, Sheilagh
Comasco, Erika
Nilsson, Kent W
Wagner, Philippe
Khoo, Eric YH 
Tai, E-Shyong 
Kao, Shih Ling
Hartman, Mikael 
Reilly, Marie
Stoer, Nathalie C
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Physical Sciences
Health Care Sciences & Services
Mathematical & Computational Biology
Medical Informatics
Statistics & Probability
Mathematics
Rank-ordered logit model
stratification
tied observations
continuous outcome
ordinal outcome
QUALITY-OF-LIFE
REGRESSION-MODELS
EFFICIENCY
SMOKING
TIMES
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2020
Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Citation: Ning, Yilin, Tan, Chuen Seng, Maraki, Angeliki, Ho, Peh Joo, Hodgins, Sheilagh, Comasco, Erika, Nilsson, Kent W, Wagner, Philippe, Khoo, Eric YH, Tai, E-Shyong, Kao, Shih Ling, Hartman, Mikael, Reilly, Marie, Stoer, Nathalie C (2020-02-01). Handling ties in continuous outcomes for confounder adjustment with rank-ordered logit and its application to ordinal outcomes. STATISTICAL METHODS IN MEDICAL RESEARCH 29 (2) : 437-454. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1177/0962280219837656
Abstract: The rank-ordered logit (rologit) model was recently introduced as a robust approach for analysing continuous outcomes, with the linear exposure effect estimated by scaling the rank-based log-odds estimate. Here we extend the application of the rologit model to continuous outcomes with ties and ordinal outcomes treated as imperfectly-observed continuous outcomes. By identifying the functional relationship between survival times and continuous outcomes, we explicitly establish the equivalence between the rologit and Cox models to justify the use of the Breslow, Efron and perturbation methods in the analysis of continuous outcomes with ties. Using simulation, we found all three methods perform well with few ties. Although an increasing extent of ties increased the bias of the log-odds and linear effect estimates and resulted in reduced power, which was somewhat worse when the model was mis-specified, the perturbation method maintained a type I error around 5%, while the Efron method became conservative with heavy ties but outperformed Breslow. In general, the perturbation method had the highest power, followed by the Efron and then the Breslow method. We applied our approach to three real-life datasets, demonstrating a seamless analytical workflow that uses stratification for confounder adjustment in studies of continuous and ordinal outcomes.
Source Title: STATISTICAL METHODS IN MEDICAL RESEARCH
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/209055
ISSN: 09622802
14770334
DOI: 10.1177/0962280219837656
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