Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00266
Title: 3D-Printed PCL/PPy Conductive Scaffolds as Three-Dimensional Porous Nerve Guide Conduits (NGCs) for Peripheral Nerve Injury Repair
Authors: Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj 
Kannan, Sathya
Cao, Tong 
Fuh, Jerry YH 
Sriram, Gopu 
Lu, Wen Feng 
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology
Multidisciplinary Sciences
Science & Technology - Other Topics
EHD-jet 3D printing
nerve guide conduit
tissue engineering scaffolds
conductive scaffolds
stem cells
peripheral nerve injury
ELECTRICAL-STIMULATION
NANOFIBROUS SCAFFOLDS
POLYPYRROLE
ELECTROSPUN
POLYMERS
DESIGN
SENSOR
RAMAN
Issue Date: 16-Oct-2019
Publisher: FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Citation: Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj, Kannan, Sathya, Cao, Tong, Fuh, Jerry YH, Sriram, Gopu, Lu, Wen Feng (2019-10-16). 3D-Printed PCL/PPy Conductive Scaffolds as Three-Dimensional Porous Nerve Guide Conduits (NGCs) for Peripheral Nerve Injury Repair. FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 7. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00266
Abstract: Conductivity is a desirable property of an ideal nerve guide conduit (NGC) that is being considered for peripheral nerve regeneration. Most of the conductive polymers reported in use for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds such as polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline, polythiophene, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) are non-biodegradable and possess weak mechanical properties to be fabricated into 3D structures. In this study, a biodegradable and conductive block copolymer of PPy and Polycaprolactone (PPy-b-PCL) was used to fabricate 3D porous NGCs using a novel electrohydrodynamic jet 3D printing process which offers superior control over fiber diameter, pore size, porosity, and fiber alignment. PCL/PPy scaffolds with three different concentrations of PPy-b-PCL (0.5, 1, and 2% v/v) were fabricated as a mesh (pore size 125 ± 15 μm) and the effect of incorporation of PPy-b-PCL on mechanical properties, biodegradability, and conductivity of the NGCs were studied. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds decreased with the addition of PPy-b-PCL which aided the ability to fabricate softer scaffolds that are closer to the properties of the native human peripheral nerve. With increasing concentrations of PPy-b-PCL, the scaffolds displayed a marked increase in conductivity (ranging from 0.28 to 1.15 mS/cm depending on concentration of PPy). Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells (hESC-NCSCs) were used to investigate the impact of PPy-b-PCL based conductive scaffolds on the growth and differentiation to peripheral neuronal cells. The hESC-NCSCs were able to attach and differentiate to peripheral neurons on PCL and PCL/PPy scaffolds, in particular the PCL/PPy (1% v/v) scaffolds supported higher growth of neural cells and a stronger maturation of hESC-NCSCs to peripheral neuronal cells. Overall, these results suggest that PPy-based conductive scaffolds have potential clinical value as cell-free or cell-laden NGCs for peripheral neuronal regeneration.
Source Title: FRONTIERS IN BIOENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/205955
ISSN: 22964185
DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00266
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