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Title: Geometric control over surface plasmon polariton out-coupling pathways in metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions
Authors: Andreea Radulescu
Ksenia S. Makarenko 
Thanh Xuan Hoang
Vijith Kalathingal 
Thorin J. Duffin 
Hong-Son Chu
Christian A. Nijhuis 
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: OSA Publishing
Citation: Andreea Radulescu, Ksenia S. Makarenko, Thanh Xuan Hoang, Vijith Kalathingal, Thorin J. Duffin, Hong-Son Chu, Christian A. Nijhuis (2021). Geometric control over surface plasmon polariton out-coupling pathways in metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions. Optics Express. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Abstract: Metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions (MIM-TJs) can electrically excite surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) well below the diffraction limit. When inelastically tunneling electrons traverse the tunnel barrier under applied external voltage, a highly-confined cavity mode (MIM-SPP) is excited, which further out-couples from the MIM-TJ to photons and single-interface SPPs via multiple pathways. In this work we control the out-coupling pathways of the MIM-SPP mode by engineering the geometry of the MIM-TJ. We fabricated MIM-TJs with tunneling directions oriented vertical or lateral with respect to the directly integrated plasmonic strip waveguides. With control over the tunneling direction, preferential out-coupling of the MIM-SPP mode to SPPs or photons is achieved. Based on the wavevector distribution of the single-interface SPPs or photons in the far-field emission intensity obtained from back focal plane (BFP) imaging, we estimate the out-coupling efficiency of the MIMSPP mode to multiple out-coupling pathways. We show that in the vertical-MIM-TJs the MIM-SPP mode preferentially out-couples to single-interface SPPs along the strip waveguides while in the lateral-MIM-TJs photon out-coupling to the far-field is more efficient.
Source Title: Optics Express
ISSN: 10944087
DOI: 10.1364/OE.413698
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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