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Title: Identifying positive adaptive pathways in low-income families in Singapore: Protocol for sequential, longitudinal mixed-methods design
Authors: Goh, E.C.L 
Chong, W.H
Mohanty, J
Law, E.C.N 
Hsu, C.-Y.S 
De Mol, J
Kuczynski, L
Keywords: article
controlled study
growth curve
home environment
human experiment
institutional review
lowest income group
major clinical study
outcome assessment
parental stress
phase 2 clinical trial
school child
theoretical study
Issue Date: 2019
Citation: Goh, E.C.L, Chong, W.H, Mohanty, J, Law, E.C.N, Hsu, C.-Y.S, De Mol, J, Kuczynski, L (2019). Identifying positive adaptive pathways in low-income families in Singapore: Protocol for sequential, longitudinal mixed-methods design. Journal of Medical Internet Research 21 (2) : e11629. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: This study aims to examine the adaptive process of children and mothers from multistressed low-income families in Singapore. It aims to bridge the knowledge gap left by existing poverty studies, which are predominately risk focused. Through a sequential longitudinal mixed-methods design, we will differentiate children and mothers who demonstrate varied social, developmental, and mental health trajectories of outcomes. Through utilizing the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM), we aim to detect the development and changes of the positive Family Agency and adaptive capacities of these families over time. The construct of Family Agency is underpinned by the theoretical guidance from the Social Relational Theory, which examines child agency, parent agency, relational agency, and the interactions among these members. It is hypothesized that positive Family Agency within low-income families may lead to better outcomes. The key research questions include whether the extent of positive Family Agency mediates the relationship among financial stress, resource utilization, home environment, and parental stress. Objective: The study elucidates the Family Agency construct through interviews with mother-child dyads. It also aims to understand how financial stress and resources are differentially related to home environment, parent stress, and parent and child outcomes. Methods: In phase 1, 60 mother-child dyads from families receiving government financial assistance and with children aged between 7 and 12 years will be recruited. In-depth interviews will be conducted separately with mothers and children. On the basis of 120 interviews, a measurement for the construct of Family Agency will be developed and will be pilot tested. In phase 2a, a longitudinal survey will be conducted over 3 time points from 800 mother-child dyads. The 3 waves of survey results will be analyzed by LGCM to identify the trajectories of adaptation pathways of these low-income families. In addition, 10 focus groups with up to 15 participants in each will be conducted to validate the LGCM results. Results: This project is funded by the Social Science Research Thematic Grant (Singapore). The recruitment of 60 mother-child dyads has been achieved. Data collection will commence once the amendment to the protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board. Analysis of phase 1 data will be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2019, and the first set of results is expected to be submitted for publication by the second quarter of 2019. Phase 2 implementation will commence in the second quarter of 2019, and the project end date is in May 2021. Conclusions: Findings from this study can potentially inform social policy and programs as it refines the understanding of low-income families by distinguishing trajectories of adaptive capacities so that policies and interventions can be targeted in enhancing the adaptive pathways of low-income families with children. © Esther Chor Leng Goh, Wan Har Chong, Jayashree Mohanty, Evelyn Chung Ning Law, Chin-Ying Stephen Hsu, Jan De Mol, Leon Kuczynski.
Source Title: Journal of Medical Internet Research
ISSN: 14388871
DOI: 10.2196/11629
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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