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Title: Brain-computer-interface-based intervention re-normalizes brain functional network topology in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Authors: Qian, X 
Loo, B.R.Y 
Castellanos, F.X
Liu, S 
Koh, H.L 
Poh, X.W.W
Krishnan, R 
Fung, D
Chee, M.W 
Guan, C 
Lee, T.-S 
Lim, C.G
Zhou, J 
Keywords: Article
attention deficit disorder
brain computer interface
brain maturation
Child Behavior Checklist
controlled study
default mode network
executive function
functional connectivity
functional magnetic resonance imaging
image analysis
major clinical study
neuropsychological test
task positive network
ventral attention network
attention deficit disorder
brain mapping
cluster analysis
defense mechanism
diagnostic imaging
nerve tract
nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
randomized controlled trial
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Brain Mapping
Brain-Computer Interfaces
Cluster Analysis
Defense Mechanisms
Executive Function
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Neural Pathways
Psychomotor Agitation
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: Qian, X, Loo, B.R.Y, Castellanos, F.X, Liu, S, Koh, H.L, Poh, X.W.W, Krishnan, R, Fung, D, Chee, M.W, Guan, C, Lee, T.-S, Lim, C.G, Zhou, J (2018). Brain-computer-interface-based intervention re-normalizes brain functional network topology in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Translational Psychiatry 8 (1) : 149. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A brain-computer-interface (BCI)-based attention training game system has shown promise for treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with inattentive symptoms. However, little is known about brain network organizational changes underlying behavior improvement following BCI-based training. To cover this gap, we aimed to examine the topological alterations of large-scale brain functional networks induced by the 8-week BCI-based attention intervention in ADHD boys using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging method. Compared to the non-intervention (ADHD-NI) group, the intervention group (ADHD-I) showed greater reduction of inattention symptoms accompanied with differential brain network reorganizations after training. Specifically, the ADHD-NI group had increased functional connectivity (FC) within the salience/ventral attention network (SVN) and increased FC between task-positive networks (including the SVN, dorsal attention (DAN), somatomotor, and executive control network) and subcortical regions; in contrast ADHD-I group did not have this pattern. In parallel, ADHD-I group had reduced degree centrality and clustering coefficient as well as increased closeness in task-positive and the default mode networks (prefrontal regions) after the training. More importantly, these reduced local functional processing mainly in the SVN were associated with less inattentive/internalizing problems after 8-week BCI-based intervention across ADHD patients. Our findings suggest that the BCI-based attention training facilitates behavioral improvement in ADHD children by reorganizing brain functional network from more regular to more random configurations, particularly renormalizing salience network processing. Future long-term longitudinal neuroimaging studies are needed to develop the BCI-based intervention approach to promote brain maturation in ADHD. © 2018, The Author(s).
Source Title: Translational Psychiatry
ISSN: 2158-3188
DOI: 10.1038/s41398-018-0213-8
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