Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.6092
Title: Sleep restriction impairs vocabulary learning when adolescents cram for exams: The need for sleep study
Authors: Huang, S 
Deshpande, A 
Yeo, S.-C 
Lo, J.C 
Chee, M.W.L 
Gooley, J.J 
Keywords: adolescent
adult
Article
behavior
clinical examination
clinical protocol
cram
female
human
learning
linguistics
major clinical study
male
priority journal
sleep
sleep deprivation
sleep time
task performance
time
time in bed
controlled study
learning
physiology
psychology
randomized controlled trial
recall
young adult
Adolescent
Female
Humans
Learning
Male
Mental Recall
Sleep Deprivation
Vocabulary
Young Adult
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Associated Professional Sleep Societies,LLC
Citation: Huang, S, Deshpande, A, Yeo, S.-C, Lo, J.C, Chee, M.W.L, Gooley, J.J (2016). Sleep restriction impairs vocabulary learning when adolescents cram for exams: The need for sleep study. Sleep 39 (9) : 1681-1690. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.6092
Abstract: Study Objectives: The ability to recall facts is improved when learning takes place at spaced intervals, or when sleep follows shortly after learning. However, many students cram for exams and trade sleep for other activities. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of study spacing and time in bed (TIB) for sleep on vocabulary learning in adolescents. Methods: In the Need for Sleep Study, which used a parallel-group design, 56 adolescents aged 15-19 years were randomly assigned to a week of either 5 h or 9 h of TIB for sleep each night as part of a 14-day protocol conducted at a boarding school. During the sleep manipulation period, participants studied 40 Graduate Record Examination (GRE)-type English words using digital flashcards. Word pairs were presented over 4 consecutive days (spaced items), or all at once during single study sessions (massed items), with total study time kept constant across conditions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. Results: For all retention intervals examined, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in adolescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued recall performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. Conclusions: Spaced learning conferred strong protection against the effects of sleep restriction on recall performance, whereas students who had insufficient sleep were more likely to forget items studied over short time intervals. These findings in adolescents demonstrate the importance of combining good study habits and good sleep habits to optimize learning outcomes.
Source Title: Sleep
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/175250
ISSN: 0161-8105
DOI: 10.5665/sleep.6092
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