Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01612
Title: Immunomodulation as therapy for fungal infection: Are we closer?
Authors: Sam, Q.H. 
Yew, W.S. 
Seneviratne, C.J. 
Chang, M.W. 
Chai, L.Y.A. 
Keywords: auranofin
colony stimulating factor 1
cytokine receptor agonist
deferasirox
ebselen
efungumab
gamma interferon
granulocyte colony stimulating factor
granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor
interleukin 12p40
interleukin 6
molgramostim
probiotic agent
recombinant gamma interferon
recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor
retinol
sargramostim
suppressor of cytokine signaling 3
tamoxifen
toll like receptor 9
toll like receptor agonist
tumor necrosis factor
vitamin D
adoptive T cell therapy
antifungal therapy
cell therapy
chimeric antigen receptor natural killer cell immunotherapy
chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy
clinical trial (topic)
cryptococcal meningitis
cryptococcosis
Cryptococcus neoformans
drug repositioning
granulocyte transfusion
human
immunomodulation
microbiome
nonhuman
phase 1 clinical trial (topic)
phase 2 clinical trial (topic)
Review
systemic mycosis
T lymphocyte
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Citation: Sam, Q.H., Yew, W.S., Seneviratne, C.J., Chang, M.W., Chai, L.Y.A. (2018). Immunomodulation as therapy for fungal infection: Are we closer?. Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (JUL) : 1612. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01612
Abstract: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised patients due to their weakened immune system. Immunomodulatory therapy, in synergy with existing antifungal therapy, is an attractive option to enhance their immune system and aid clearance of these opportunistic pathogens. From a scientific and clinical perspective, we explore the immunotherapeutic options to augment standard antifungal drugs for patients with an IFD. We discuss the range of immunomodulatory therapies being considered in IFD - from cytokines, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, M-CSF, IFN-?, and cytokine agonists, to cellular therapies, consisting of granulocyte transfusion, adoptive T-cell, CAR T-cell, natural killer cell therapies, and monoclonal antibodies. Adjunct pharmaceutical agents which augment the immunity are also being considered. Lastly, we explore the likelihood of the use of probiotics and manipulation of the microbiome/mycobiome to enhance IFD treatment outcomes. © 2018 Sam, Yew, Seneviratne, Chang and Chai.
Source Title: Frontiers in Microbiology
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/174534
ISSN: 1664302X
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01612
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