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Title: An in situ approach to real-time spatial control of steady-state wafer temperature during thermal processing in microlithography
Authors: Tay, A. 
Ho, W.K. 
Hu, N.
Keywords: Microlithography
Photoresist processing
Real-time control
Semiconductor manufacturing
Temperature control
Issue Date: Feb-2007
Citation: Tay, A., Ho, W.K., Hu, N. (2007-02). An in situ approach to real-time spatial control of steady-state wafer temperature during thermal processing in microlithography. IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 20 (1) : 5-12. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: We proposed an in situ method to control the steady-state wafer temperature uniformity during thermal processing in microlithography. Thermal processing of wafer in the microlithography sequence is conducted by the placement of the wafer on the bake-plate for a given period of time. A physical model of the thermal system is first developed by considering energy balances on the system. Next, by monitoring the bake-plate temperature and fitting the data into the model, the temperature of the wafer can be estimated and controlled in real-time. This is useful as production wafers usually do not have temperature sensors embedded on it, these bake-plates are usually calibrated based on test wafers with embedded sensors. However, as processes are subjected to process drifts, disturbances, and wafer warpages, real-time correction of the bake-plate temperatures to achieve uniform wafer temperature at steady state is not possible in current baking systems. Any correction is done based on run-to-run control techniques which depends on the sampling frequency of the wafers. Our approach is real-time and can correct for any variations in the desired steady-state wafer temperature. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. © 2007 IEEE.
Source Title: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
ISSN: 08946507
DOI: 10.1109/TSM.2007.890770
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