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Title: Circulating Metabolites and Cardiovascular Disease in Asians with Chronic Kidney Disease
Authors: Jiashen Cai 
Crystal Chun Yuen Chong
Ching Yu Cheng 
Cynthia Ciwei Lim 
Charumathi Sabanayagam 
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease
Chronic kidney disease
Issue Date: 5-Sep-2023
Publisher: S. Karger AG
Citation: Jiashen Cai, Crystal Chun Yuen Chong, Ching Yu Cheng, Cynthia Ciwei Lim, Charumathi Sabanayagam (2023-09-05). Circulating Metabolites and Cardiovascular Disease in Asians with Chronic Kidney Disease. Cardiorenal Medicine 13 (1). ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
Abstract: Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem, with significant burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The risk of cardiovascular disease in CKD is elevated beyond that predicted by traditional cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting that other factors may account for this increased risk. Through metabolic profiling, this study aimed to investigate the associations between serum metabolites and prevalent cardiovascular disease in Asian patients with CKD to provide insights into the complex interactions between metabolism, cardiovascular disease and CKD. Methods: This was a single-center cross-sectional study of 1,122 individuals from three ethnic cohorts in the population-based Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) study (153 Chinese, 262 Indians, and 707 Malays) aged 40–80 years with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify 228 metabolites from the participants’ serum or plasma. Prevalent cardiovascular disease was defined as self-reported myocardial infarction, angina, or stroke. Multivariate logistic regression identified metabolites independently associated with cardiovascular disease in each ethnic cohort. Metabolites with the same direction of association with cardiovascular disease in all three cohorts were selected and subjected to meta-analysis. Results: Cardiovascular disease was present in 275 (24.5%). Participants with cardiovascular disease tend to be male; of older age; with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes; with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP); lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol than those without cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for age, sex, systolic BP, diabetes, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, 10 lipoprotein subclass ratios and 6 other metabolites were significantly associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease in at least one cohort. Meta-analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons found that lower tyrosine, leucine, and valine concentrations and lower cholesteryl esters to total lipid ratio in intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) were associated with cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: In Chinese, Indian, and Malay participants with CKD, prevalent cardiovascular disease was associated with tyrosine, leucine, valine, and cholesteryl esters to total lipid ratios in IDL. Increased cardiovascular risk in CKD patients may be contributed by altered amino acid and lipoprotein metabolism. The presence of CKD and ethnic differences may affect interactions between metabolites in health and disease, hence greater understanding will allow us to better risk stratify patients, and also individualize care with consideration of ethnic disparities.
Source Title: Cardiorenal Medicine
ISSN: 1664-3828
DOI: 10.1159/000533741
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
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