Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Metacognitive awareness of the pretesting effect improves with self-regulation support
Authors: Pan, Steven C 
Rivers, Michelle L
Keywords: Pretesting effect
Errorful generation
Knowledge updating
Issue Date: 13-Jan-2023
Publisher: SPRINGER
Citation: Pan, Steven C, Rivers, Michelle L (2023-01-13). Metacognitive awareness of the pretesting effect improves with self-regulation support. MEMORY & COGNITION. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The pretesting or prequestion effect refers to the counterintuitive finding that taking tests on information that one has yet to learn, during which many erroneous responses typically occur, can benefit learning relative to nontesting methods (e.g., reading) if the correct answers are studied afterwards. Using a knowledge updating approach that entailed two or three cycles of pretesting versus reading followed by a criterial test, we investigated (a) the extent to which learners develop metacognitive awareness of the pretesting effect through experience (as evidenced by predictions of criterial test performance) and (b) three forms of external support—namely, performance feedback (displaying criterial test performance for pretested versus read items), prediction reminders (displaying learners’ predictions alongside performance feedback), and recall prompts (asking learners to remember criterial test performance during the first cycle prior to making predictions for the second cycle)—that might improve, or provide insights into, such awareness. Across five experiments, we found that learners generally lack awareness of the memorial benefits of pretesting, are predisposed to believing that reading is more effective even after repeatedly experiencing both techniques, and need support before they recognize that pretesting is more beneficial. Overall, these results underscore the challenge of, and highlight several means of dislodging, learners’ inaccurate beliefs about the efficacy of pretesting.
ISSN: 0090-502X
DOI: 10.3758/s13421-022-01392-1
Appears in Collections:Elements
Staff Publications

Show full item record
Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormatAccess SettingsVersion 
Metacognitive awareness of the pretesting effect improves with self-regulation support.pdf1.75 MBAdobe PDF



Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.