Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112190
Title: Mixed Milk Feeding: A New Approach to Describe Feeding Patterns in the First Year of Life Based on Individual Participant Data from Two Randomised Controlled Trials
Authors: Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G
Balan, Theodor A
van der Merwe, Liandre F
Pang, Wei Wei 
Michaelis, Louise J
Shek, Lynette P 
Vandenplas, Yvan
Teoh, Oon Hoe 
Fiocchi, Alessandro G
Chong, Yap Seng 
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Nutrition & Dietetics
breastfeeding
formula feeding
infant
k-means clustering
mixed milk feeding
BREAST-MILK
DURATION
FORMULA
INFANT
RISK
ASSOCIATION
TRENDS
KML3D
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2022
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G, Balan, Theodor A, van der Merwe, Liandre F, Pang, Wei Wei, Michaelis, Louise J, Shek, Lynette P, Vandenplas, Yvan, Teoh, Oon Hoe, Fiocchi, Alessandro G, Chong, Yap Seng (2022-06-01). Mixed Milk Feeding: A New Approach to Describe Feeding Patterns in the First Year of Life Based on Individual Participant Data from Two Randomised Controlled Trials. NUTRIENTS 14 (11). ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112190
Abstract: ‘Mixed Milk Feeding’ (MMF), whereby infants are fed with both breastmilk and infant formula during the same period, is a common feeding practice. Despite its high prevalence, knowledge regarding MMF practices and their association with (health) outcomes is limited, potentially because MMF behaviours are highly variable and difficult to standardise longitudinally. In this paper, we applied a statistical clustering algorithm on individual infant feeding data collected over the first year of life from two clinical trials: ‘TEMPO’ (n = 855) and ‘Venus’ (n = 539); these studies were conducted in different years and world regions. In TEMPO, more than half of infants were MMF. Four distinct MMF clusters were identified: early exclusive formula feeding (32%), later exclusive formula feeding (25%), long-term MMF (21%), and mostly breastfeeding (22%). The same method applied to ‘Venus’ resulted in comparable clusters, building trust in the robustness of the cluster approach. These results demonstrate that distinct MMF patterns can be identified, which may be applicable to diverse populations. These insights could support the design of future research studying the impact of infant feeding patterns on health outcomes. To standardise this in future research, it is important to establish a unified definition of MMF.
Source Title: NUTRIENTS
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/234704
ISSN: 20726643
20726643
DOI: 10.3390/nu14112190
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