Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-022-02817-6
Title: Locally invasive recurrence or metastasis of pheochromocytoma into the liver?—clinicopathological challenges
Authors: Tang, Sarah S
Lee, James WK
Wijerethne, Sujith
Iyer, Shridhar Ganpathi 
Hue, Susan
En, Nga Min 
Parameswaran, Rajeev 
Issue Date: 11-Nov-2022
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Citation: Tang, Sarah S, Lee, James WK, Wijerethne, Sujith, Iyer, Shridhar Ganpathi, Hue, Susan, En, Nga Min, Parameswaran, Rajeev (2022-11-11). Locally invasive recurrence or metastasis of pheochromocytoma into the liver?—clinicopathological challenges. World Journal of Surgical Oncology 20 (1). ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-022-02817-6
Abstract: AbstractPheochromocytomas (PCC) are rare and functional neuroendocrine tumors developing from adrenal chromaffin cells. Predicting malignant behavior especially in the absence of metastasis can be quite challenging even in the era of improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in PCCs. Currently, two histopathological grading systems Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and Grading of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP) score are used in clinical practice, but these are subject to significant interobserver variability. Some of the most useful clinical factors associated with malignancy are large size ([4–5 cm), and genetic features such as presence of SDHB germline mutations. Local invasion is uncommon in PCC and metastasis seen in 10 to 17% but higher in germline mutations and when this occurs management can be challenging. Here, we report on a case with challenges faced by the pathologist and clinicians alike in diagnosis and management of PCC recurrence.
Source Title: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/234519
ISSN: 1477-7819
DOI: 10.1186/s12957-022-02817-6
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