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Title: Carlgren’s hesitation allayed: Redescription and systematics of heteranthus verruculatus Klunzinger, 1877 (Cnidaria, Actiniaria), with a redefinition of Heteranthidae Carlgren, 1900
Authors: Liang Yap, N.W. 
Randolph Quek, Z.B. 
Tan, Ria
Nugroho, Dharma Arif
Lee, Jen Nie
Berumen, Michael Lee
Tan, Koh Siang 
Huang, Danwei 
Keywords: Actinioidea
Indo-west pacific
Longitudinal fission
Issue Date: 27-Nov-2020
Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers
Citation: Liang Yap, N.W., Randolph Quek, Z.B., Tan, Ria, Nugroho, Dharma Arif, Lee, Jen Nie, Berumen, Michael Lee, Tan, Koh Siang, Huang, Danwei (2020-11-27). Carlgren’s hesitation allayed: Redescription and systematics of heteranthus verruculatus Klunzinger, 1877 (Cnidaria, Actiniaria), with a redefinition of Heteranthidae Carlgren, 1900. Contributions to Zoology 90 (2) : 155-182. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Species boundaries delineating tropical sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) of the zooxanthellate genus, Heteranthus Klunzinger, 1877, are unclear. There are currently two valid Heteranthus species: type species Heteranthus verruculatus Klunzinger, 1877, first reported from Koseir, Egypt, and H. insignis Carlgren, 1943, from Poulo Condore, Vietnam. In describing the latter from a single, poorly preserved specimen, zoologist Oskar Carlgren expressed apprehension with traits he had used to establish this species. Carlgren’s doubts persisted later in writing when he found a similar-looking sea anemone from the Great Barrier Reef. Crucial details to positively identify either species have since remained limited. Here, we re-diagnosed Heteranthus and re-described its type species based on observations of specimens we have obtained from Singapore and Pulau Ambon (Indonesia), and of museum material collected elsewhere across the Indo-West Pacific region (n > 180). Supported by molecular phylogenetic evidence, the family Heteranthidae Carlgren, 1900 was reinstated and re-diagnosed. Heteranthus verruculatus is encountered in the lower intertidal region amongst seagrass, in rocky crevices, or coral rubble. It occurs as solitary individuals or in clonal clusters, well-camouflaged against the substratum. Individuals were observed to frequently propagate by longitudinal fission, resulting in a varied appearance. Type material of H. verruculatus and H. insignis were re-examined and as we found no differences between them, the two were synonymised. We inferred that Carlgren probably misinterpreted cnidae and histological data in defining H. insignis as a distinct species. This revision clarifies the taxonomy and geographic range of H. verruculatus, an Indo-West Pacific species that is found from the Red Sea to subtropical Australia and Hawaii. © Nicholas Wei Liang Yap et al., 2020.
Source Title: Contributions to Zoology
ISSN: 1383-4517
DOI: 10.1163/18759866-bja10015
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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