Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11111978
Title: Integration of the cortical haemodynamic response measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy and amino acid analysis to aid in the diagnosis of major depressive disorder
Authors: Ong, Samantha K.
Husain, Syeda F. 
Wee, Hai Ning 
Ching, Jianhong 
Kovalik, Jean-Paul 
Cheng, Man Si 
Schwarz, Herbert 
Tang, Tong Boon
Ho, Cyrus S. 
Keywords: Diagnosis
Haemodynamic response
Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry
Major depressive disorder
Near-infrared spectroscopy
Verbal fluency test
Issue Date: 25-Oct-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Ong, Samantha K., Husain, Syeda F., Wee, Hai Ning, Ching, Jianhong, Kovalik, Jean-Paul, Cheng, Man Si, Schwarz, Herbert, Tang, Tong Boon, Ho, Cyrus S. (2021-10-25). Integration of the cortical haemodynamic response measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy and amino acid analysis to aid in the diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Diagnostics 11 (11) : 1978. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11111978
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating condition with a high disease burden and medical comorbidities. There are currently few to no validated biomarkers to guide the diagnosis and treatment of MDD. In the present study, we evaluated the differences between MDD patients and healthy controls (HCs) in terms of cortical haemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency test (VFT) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and serum amino acid profiles, and ascertained if these parameters were correlated with clinical characteristics. Methods: Twenty-five (25) patients with MDD and 25 age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched HCs were recruited for the study. Real-time monitoring of the haemodynamic response during completion of a VFT was quantified using a 52-channel NIRS system. Serum samples were analysed and quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for amino acid profiling. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to classify potential candidate biomarkers. Results: The MDD patients had lower prefrontal and temporal activation during completion of the VFT than HCs. The MDD patients had lower mean concentrations of oxy-Hb in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and lower serum histidine levels. When the oxy-haemoglobin response was combined with the histidine concentration, the sensitivity and specificity of results improved significantly from 66.7% to 73.3% and from 65.0% to 90.0% respectively, as compared to results based only on the NIRS response. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the use of combination biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis of MDD. This technique could be a useful approach to detect MDD with greater precision, but additional studies are required to validate the methodology. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Diagnostics
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/233619
ISSN: 2075-4418
DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics11111978
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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