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Title: Hospital Pharmacists and Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Qualitative Analysis
Authors: Wong, Lok Hang
Tay, Evonne
Heng, Shi Thong
Guo, Huiling
Kwa, Andrea Lay Hoon 
Ng, Tat Ming
Chung, Shimin Jasmine 
Somani, Jyoti 
Lye, David Chien Boon 
Chow, Angela 
Keywords: Antibiotic prescribing
Antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial stewardship
Hospital pharmacists
Issue Date: 24-Nov-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Wong, Lok Hang, Tay, Evonne, Heng, Shi Thong, Guo, Huiling, Kwa, Andrea Lay Hoon, Ng, Tat Ming, Chung, Shimin Jasmine, Somani, Jyoti, Lye, David Chien Boon, Chow, Angela (2021-11-24). Hospital Pharmacists and Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Qualitative Analysis. Antibiotics 10 (12) : 1441. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) in hospitals are predominantly led by specific ASP physicians and pharmacists. Limited studies have been conducted to appreciate non-ASP-trained hospital pharmacists’ perspectives on their roles in antimicrobial stewardship. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 74 pharmacists, purposively sampled from the 3 largest acute-care public hospitals in Singapore, to explore facilitators and barriers faced by them in antimicrobial stewardship. Applied thematic analysis was conducted and codes were categorised using the social–ecological model (SEM). At the intrapersonal level, pharmacists identified themselves as reviewers for drug safety before dispensing, confining to a restricted advisory role due to lack of clinical knowledge, experience, and empowerment to contribute actively to physicians’ prescribing decisions. At the interpersonal level, pharmacists expressed difficulties conveying their opinions and recommendations on antibiotic therapy to physicians despite frequent communications, but they assumed critical roles as educators for patients and their caregivers on proper antibiotic use. At the organisational level, in-house antibiotic guidelines supported pharmacists’ antibiotic interventions and recommendations. At the community level, pharmacists were motivated to improve low public awareness and knowledge on antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance. These findings provide important insights into the gaps to be addressed in order to harness the untapped potential of hospital pharmacists and fully engage them in antimicrobial stewardship. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Antibiotics
ISSN: 2079-6382
DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics10121441
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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