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Title: Role of artificial intelligence applications in real-life clinical practice: Systematic review
Authors: Yin, Jiamin
Ngiam, Kee Yuan
Teo, Hock Hai 
Keywords: Artificial intelligence
Clinical practice
Deep learning
Machine learning
System implementation
Issue Date: 22-Apr-2021
Publisher: JMIR Publications Inc.
Citation: Yin, Jiamin, Ngiam, Kee Yuan, Teo, Hock Hai (2021-04-22). Role of artificial intelligence applications in real-life clinical practice: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 23 (4) : e25759. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) applications are growing at an unprecedented pace in health care, including disease diagnosis, triage or screening, risk analysis, surgical operations, and so forth. Despite a great deal of research in the development and validation of health care AI, only few applications have been actually implemented at the frontlines of clinical practice. Objective: The objective of this study was to systematically review AI applications that have been implemented in real-life clinical practice. Methods: We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and CINAHL to identify relevant articles published between January 2010 and May 2020. We also hand searched premier computer science journals and conferences as well as registered clinical trials. Studies were included if they reported AI applications that had been implemented in real-world clinical settings. Results: We identified 51 relevant studies that reported the implementation and evaluation of AI applications in clinical practice, of which 13 adopted a randomized controlled trial design and eight adopted an experimental design. The AI applications targeted various clinical tasks, such as screening or triage (n=16), disease diagnosis (n=16), risk analysis (n=14), and treatment (n=7). The most commonly addressed diseases and conditions were sepsis (n=6), breast cancer (n=5), diabetic retinopathy (n=4), and polyp and adenoma (n=4). Regarding the evaluation outcomes, we found that 26 studies examined the performance of AI applications in clinical settings, 33 studies examined the effect of AI applications on clinician outcomes, 14 studies examined the effect on patient outcomes, and one study examined the economic impact associated with AI implementation. Conclusions: This review indicates that research on the clinical implementation of AI applications is still at an early stage despite the great potential. More research needs to assess the benefits and challenges associated with clinical AI applications through a more rigorous methodology. © Jiamin Yin, Kee Yuan Ngiam, Hock Hai Teo. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 22.04.2021. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
Source Title: Journal of Medical Internet Research
ISSN: 1438-8871
DOI: 10.2196/25759
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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