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Title: Assessment of home-based and mobility-based exposure to black carbon in an urban environment: A pilot study
Authors: Adam, Max Gerrit 
Tran, Phuong Thi Minh
Cheong, David Kok Wai 
Chandra Sekhar, Sitaraman 
Tham, Kwok Wai 
Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar 
Keywords: Black carbon
Personal exposure
Urban air quality
Vehicular emissions
Issue Date: 10-May-2021
Publisher: MDPI AG
Citation: Adam, Max Gerrit, Tran, Phuong Thi Minh, Cheong, David Kok Wai, Chandra Sekhar, Sitaraman, Tham, Kwok Wai, Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar (2021-05-10). Assessment of home-based and mobility-based exposure to black carbon in an urban environment: A pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18 (9) : 5028. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: The combustion of fossil fuels is a significant source of particulate-bound black carbon (BC) in urban environments. The personal exposure (PE) of urban dwellers to BC and subsequent health impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of observational data. In this study, we assessed and quantified the levels of PE to BC under two exposure scenarios (home-based and mobility-based exposure) in the city of Trivandrum in India. In the home-based scenario, the PE to BC was assessed in a naturally ventilated building over 24 h each day during the study period while in the mobility-based scenario, the PE to BC was monitored across diverse microenvironments (MEs) during the day using the same study protocol for consistency. Elevated BC concentrations were observed during the transport by motorcycle (26.23 ± 2.33 µg/m3 ) and car (17.49 ± 2.37 µg/m3 ). The BC concentrations observed in the MEs decreased in the following order: 16.58 ± 1.38 µg/m3 (temple), 13.78 ± 2.07 µg/m3 (restaurant), 11.44 ± 1.37 µg/m3 (bus stop), and 8.27 ± 1.88 µg/m3 (home); the standard deviations represent the temporal and spatial variations of BC concentrations. Overall, a relatively larger inhaled dose of BC in the range of 148.98–163.87 µg/day was observed for the mobility-based scenario compared to the home-based one (118.10–137.03 µg/day). This work highlights the importance of reducing PE to fossil fuel-related particulate emissions in cities for which BC is a good indicator. The study outcome could be used to formulate effective strategies to improve the urban air quality as well as public health. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ISSN: 1661-7827
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18095028
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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