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Title: Mid-infrared modulators integrating silicon and black phosphorus photonics
Authors: Huang, L. 
Dong, B. 
Yu, Z. G.
Zhou, J.
Ma, Y. 
Zhang, Y-W
Lee, C. 
Ang, K-W 
Keywords: Black phosphorus
On-chip integration
Silicon photonics
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2021
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Citation: Huang, L., Dong, B., Yu, Z. G., Zhou, J., Ma, Y., Zhang, Y-W, Lee, C., Ang, K-W (2021-12-01). Mid-infrared modulators integrating silicon and black phosphorus photonics. Materials Today Advances 12 : 100170. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Abstract: Vast applications of mid-infrared await the realisation of integrated photonic systems for this unique spectrum. Despite its potential as a universal platform for diverse active functions in mid-infrared, black phosphorus (BP) photonics still lacks integrated modulators for completion. Here we realize a hybrid integration of mid-infrared BP modulator on silicon photonics waveguide. Through gating effect, the anisotropic absorption in armchair BP can be tuned for enabling efficient optical modulation spanning ∼3.85–4.1 μm. The integrated waveguide design further promotes light–BP interaction that achieves a modulation depth of ∼5 dB at a low bias of −4 V. Additionally, the active footprint of 225 μm2 and the switching energy of ∼2.6 pJ are remarkably smaller compared to traditional counterparts. Function diversity of such a platform is further verified by integrating BP photodetector and modulator. The combination of two-dimensional materials and silicon photonics manifests a versatile platform to realise high-performance optoelectronic devices for compact on-chip mid-infrared system. © 2021 The Author(s)
Source Title: Materials Today Advances
ISSN: 2590-0498
DOI: 10.1016/j.mtadv.2021.100170
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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