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Title: Slow Gait, Subjective Cognitive Decline and Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Community Dwelling Older Adults
Authors: Merchant, Reshma A 
Goh, J 
Chan, YH 
Lim, JY 
Vellas, B
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Geriatrics & Gerontology
Nutrition & Dietetics
Slow gait
subjective cognitive decline
motoric cognitive risk syndrome
community-dwelling older adults
Issue Date: 29-Oct-2020
Citation: Merchant, Reshma A, Goh, J, Chan, YH, Lim, JY, Vellas, B (2020-10-29). Slow Gait, Subjective Cognitive Decline and Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Community Dwelling Older Adults. JOURNAL OF NUTRITION HEALTH & AGING 25 (1) : 48-56. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome (MCR), slow gait speed (SG) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are known to be harbingers of dementia. MCR is known to be associated with a 3-fold increased risk of future dementia, while SG can precede cognitive impairment. Objective: We aim to determine the prevalence and demographics of MCR, slow gait alone (SG-A) and subjective cognitive decline alone (SCD-A) in community-dwelling older adults and association with physical, functional, cognition and psychosocial factors. Methods: A total of 509 participants were classified into four groups according to presence of SG and/or SCD. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with SG-A, SCD-A and MCR. Results: The prevalence of MCR was 13.6%, SG-A 13.0% and SCD-A 35.0%. Prevalence of MCR doubled every decade in females with 27.7% of female ≥ 80 years old had MCR. Almost 4 in 10 had no SG or SCD (SG+SCD negative). MCR and SG-A groups were significantly older, had higher body mass index (BMI), lower education, lower global cognition scores especially in non-memory domains, higher prevalence of low grip strength and lower short physical performance battery scores than those with SCD-A and SG+SCD negative. In addition, the SG-A group had significantly higher prevalence of multi-morbidity and diabetes. The prevalence of pain, depression, frailty, social isolation and activity of daily living impairment were significantly higher in MCR. The global cognitive and functional scores for those with SCD-A were comparable to the SG+SCD negative group. The Malay ethnic group had the lowest prevalence of SCD but highest prevalence of SG. After adjusting for confounding factors, age, BMI, frailty status, instrumental activity of daily living, depression and pain remained significantly associated with MCR. For SG-A, age, BMI, education and number of chronic diseases remained significant. Conclusion: Both MCR and SG-A are associated with global cognitive decline especially in the non-memory domains and lower functional scores. Gait speed is a good predictor of negative outcomes and should be considered as the ‘sixth’ vital sign. Long term prospective studies are needed to evaluate: i) the conversion to dementia in different ethnic groups and ii) effect of targeted physical and / or dual task exercise on delaying the conversion to dementia and / or improvement in physical measures and reduction of disability.
ISSN: 1279-7707
DOI: 10.1007/s12603-020-1525-y
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