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Title: Light and myopia: from epidemiological studies to neurobiological mechanisms.
Authors: Muralidharan, Arumugam R
Lança, Carla
Biswas, Sayantan
Barathi, Veluchamy A
Wan Yu Shermaine, Low
Seang-Mei, Saw 
Milea, Dan 
Najjar, Raymond P 
Keywords: animal models
outdoor activity
Issue Date: Jan-2021
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Citation: Muralidharan, Arumugam R, Lança, Carla, Biswas, Sayantan, Barathi, Veluchamy A, Wan Yu Shermaine, Low, Seang-Mei, Saw, Milea, Dan, Najjar, Raymond P (2021-01). Light and myopia: from epidemiological studies to neurobiological mechanisms.. Ther Adv Ophthalmol 13 : 25158414211059246-. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Myopia is far beyond its inconvenience and represents a true, highly prevalent, sight-threatening ocular condition, especially in Asia. Without adequate interventions, the current epidemic of myopia is projected to affect 50% of the world population by 2050, becoming the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although blurred vision, the predominant symptom of myopia, can be improved by contact lenses, glasses or refractive surgery, corrected myopia, particularly high myopia, still carries the risk of secondary blinding complications such as glaucoma, myopic maculopathy and retinal detachment, prompting the need for prevention. Epidemiological studies have reported an association between outdoor time and myopia prevention in children. The protective effect of time spent outdoors could be due to the unique characteristics (intensity, spectral distribution, temporal pattern, etc.) of sunlight that are lacking in artificial lighting. Concomitantly, studies in animal models have highlighted the efficacy of light and its components in delaying or even stopping the development of myopia and endeavoured to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in this process. In this narrative review, we (1) summarize the current knowledge concerning light modulation of ocular growth and refractive error development based on studies in human and animal models, (2) summarize potential neurobiological mechanisms involved in the effects of light on ocular growth and emmetropization and (3) highlight a potential pathway for the translational development of noninvasive light-therapy strategies for myopia prevention in children.
Source Title: Ther Adv Ophthalmol
ISSN: 25158414
DOI: 10.1177/25158414211059246
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