Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01859
Title: Heterogeneously Integrated Graphene/Silicon/Halide Waveguide Photodetectors toward Chip-Scale Zero-Bias Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopic Sensing
Authors: Ma, Yiming 
Chang, Yuhua 
Dong, Bowei 
Wei, Jingxuan 
Liu, Weixin 
Lee, Chengkuo 
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Technology
Chemistry, Multidisciplinary
Chemistry, Physical
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Chemistry
Science & Technology - Other Topics
Materials Science
long-wave infrared
photodetector
graphene
silicon photonics
integrated photonics
absorption spectroscopy
GRAPHENE PHOTODETECTOR
HIGH-RESPONSIVITY
PHOTODIODES
PHOTORESPONSE
SPECTROMETER
PHOTOCURRENT
GENERATION
PHOTONICS
LIGHT
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2021
Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Citation: Ma, Yiming, Chang, Yuhua, Dong, Bowei, Wei, Jingxuan, Liu, Weixin, Lee, Chengkuo (2021-06-01). Heterogeneously Integrated Graphene/Silicon/Halide Waveguide Photodetectors toward Chip-Scale Zero-Bias Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopic Sensing. ACS NANO 15 (6) : 10084-10094. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01859
Abstract: Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy plays an important role in molecule identification and quantification for widespread applications. Integrated photonics provides opportunities to perform spectroscopic sensing on-chip for the minimization of device size, cost, and power consumption. The integration of waveguides and photodetectors is an indispensable step toward the realization of these on-chip sensing systems. It is desired to extend the operating wavelengths of these on-chip sensing systems to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) range to utilize more molecular absorption fingerprints. However, the development of LWIR waveguide-integrated photodetectors faces challenges from both waveguide platforms due to the bottom cladding material absorption and photodetection technologies due to the low LWIR photon energy. Here, we demonstrate LWIR waveguide-integrated photodetectors through heterogeneous integration of graphene photodetectors and Si waveguides on CaF2 substrates. A high-yield transfer printing method is developed for flexibly integrating the waveguide and substrate materials to solve the bottom cladding material absorption issue. The fabricated Si-on-CaF2 waveguides show low losses in the broad LWIR wavelength range of 6.3-7.1 μm. The graphene photodetector achieves a broadband responsivity of ∼8 mA/W in these low-photon-energy LWIR wavelengths under zero-bias operation with the help of waveguide integration and plasmonic enhancement. We further integrate the graphene photodetector with a Si-on-CaF2 folded waveguide and demonstrate on-chip absorption sensing using toluene as an example. These results reveal the potential of our technology for the realization of chip-scale, low-cost, and low-power-consumption LWIR spectroscopic sensing systems.
Source Title: ACS NANO
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/215078
ISSN: 1936-0851
1936-086X
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c01859
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