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Title: A bio-psycho-social approach for frailty amongst Singaporean Chinese community-dwelling older adults-evidence from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study
Authors: Teo, N.
Yeo, P.S. 
Gao, Q. 
Nyunt, M.S.Z. 
Foo, J.J.
Wee, S.L. 
Ng, T.P. 
Keywords: Disability
Multidimensional frailty
Nursing home referral
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: BioMed Central
Citation: Teo, N., Yeo, P.S., Gao, Q., Nyunt, M.S.Z., Foo, J.J., Wee, S.L., Ng, T.P. (2019). A bio-psycho-social approach for frailty amongst Singaporean Chinese community-dwelling older adults-evidence from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study. BMC Geriatrics 19 (1) : 350. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Few empirical studies support a bio-psycho-social conceptualization of frailty. In addition to physical frailty (PF), we explored mental (MF) and social (SF) frailty and studied the associations between multidimensional frailty and various adverse health outcomes. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted using data from a population-based cohort (SLAS-1) of 2387 community-dwelling Singaporean Chinese older adults. Outcomes examined were functional and severe disability, nursing home referral and mortality. PF was defined by shrinking, weakness, slowness, exhaustion and physical inactivity, 1-2 = pre-frail, 3-5 = frail; MF was defined by ?1 of cognitive impairment, low mood and poor self-reported health; SF was defined by ?2 of living alone, no education, no confidant, infrequent social contact or help, infrequent social activities, financial difficulty and living in low-end public housing. Results: The prevalence of any frailty dimension was 63.0%, dominated by PF (26.2%) and multidimensional frailty (24.2%); 7.0% had all three frailty dimensions. With a few exceptions, frailty dimensions share similar associations with many socio-demographic, lifestyle, health and behavioral factors. Each frailty dimension varied in showing independent associations with functional (Odds Ratios [ORs] = 1.3-1.8) and severe disability prevalence at baseline (ORs = 2.2-7.3), incident functional disability (ORs = 1.1-1.5), nursing home referral (ORs = 1.5-3.4) and mortality (Hazard Ratios = 1.3-1.5) after adjusting for age, gender, medical comorbidity and the two other frailty dimensions. The addition of MF and SF to PF incrementally increased risk estimates by more than 2 folds. Conclusions: This study highlights the relevance and utility of PF, MF and SF individually and together. Multidimensional frailty can better inform policies and promote the use of targeted multi-domain interventions tailored to older adults' frailty statuses. © 2019 The Author(s).
Source Title: BMC Geriatrics
ISSN: 14712318
DOI: 10.1186/s12877-019-1367-9
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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