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Title: A randomized controlled trial of a brain-computer interface based attention training program for ADHD
Authors: Lim, C.G.
Poh, X.W.W.
Fung, S.S.D.
Guan, C.
Bautista, D. 
Cheung, Y.B. 
Zhang, H.
Yeo, S.N. 
Krishnan, R. 
Lee, T.S. 
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Lim, C.G., Poh, X.W.W., Fung, S.S.D., Guan, C., Bautista, D., Cheung, Y.B., Zhang, H., Yeo, S.N., Krishnan, R., Lee, T.S. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of a brain-computer interface based attention training program for ADHD. PLoS ONE 14 (5) : e0216225. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Objective The use of brain-computer interface in neurofeedback therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a relatively new approach. We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether an 8-week brain computer interface (BCI)-based attention training program improved inattentive symptoms in children with ADHD compared to a waitlist-control group, and the effects of a subsequent 12-week lower-intensity training. Study design We randomized 172 children aged 6–12 attending an outpatient child psychiatry clinic diagnosed with inattentive or combined subtypes of ADHD and not receiving concurrent pharma-cotherapy or behavioral intervention to either the intervention or waitlist-control group. Intervention involved 3 sessions of BCI-based training for 8 weeks, followed by 3 training sessions per month over the subsequent 12 weeks. The waitlist-control group received similar 20-week intervention after a wait-time of 8 weeks. Results The participants’ mean age was 8.6 years (SD = 1.51), with 147 males (85.5%) and 25 females (14.5%). Modified intention to treat analyzes conducted on 163 participants with at least one follow-up rating showed that at 8 weeks, clinician-rated inattentive symptoms on the ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) was reduced by 3.5 (SD 3.97) in the intervention group compared to 1.9 (SD 4.42) in the waitlist-control group (between-group difference of 1.6; 95% CI 0.3 to 2.9 p = 0.0177). At the end of the full 20-week treatment, the mean reduction (pre-post BCI) of the pooled group was 3.2 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.1). Conclusion The results suggest that the BCI-based attention training program can improve ADHD symptoms after a minimum of 24 sessions and maintenance training may sustain this improvement. This intervention may be an option for treating milder cases or as an adjunctive treatment. © 2019 Lim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216225
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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