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Title: Reproduction in the tropical frilly sea anemone Phymanthus pinnulatus (Cnidaria, Actiniaria)
Authors: Clara Lei Xin Yong
Nicholas Wei Liang Yap 
Koh Siang Tan 
Danwei Huang 
Keywords: Asynchronous gametogenesis
Issue Date: 16-Mar-2021
Publisher: Wiley
Citation: Clara Lei Xin Yong, Nicholas Wei Liang Yap, Koh Siang Tan, Danwei Huang (2021-03-16). Reproduction in the tropical frilly sea anemone Phymanthus pinnulatus (Cnidaria, Actiniaria). Invertebrate Biology. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Our understanding of how sea anemones reproduce in the equatorial Central Indo-Pacific region remains poor compared to other marine regions. Here we report the gametogenic cycles of Phymanthus pinnulatus, a zooxanthellate sea anemone found throughout the Indo-Pacific tropics. Observations were based on 41 individuals collected in Singapore. We found P. pinnulatus to be gonochoric, with an equal sex ratio of 1:1. Phases of oogenesis and spermatogenesis were detailed for the first time in P. pinnulatus, and were consistent with phases in other actiniarians. Females with pedal disc diameters <10 mm were found to asynchronously produce oocytes. We also found that trophonemata were associated with both oocytes and spermaries during gametogenesis. In Singapore, the periods during which gametes matured in each sex of P. pinnulatus appeared to overlap. We were unable distinguish whether spawning was annual or continuous in P. pinnulatus. Our observations on the occurrence of maturing and matured gametes in P. pinnulatus were similar to those reported for other species within the Central Indo-Pacific. It also coincided with the multi-species spawning of scleractinian corals in Singapore. This study contributes to the growing body of work focused on the biology of tropical actiniarians in the Central Indo-Pacific region.
Source Title: Invertebrate Biology
ISSN: 10778306
DOI: 10.1111/ivb.12313
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