Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1531
Title: Eyespots deflect predator attack increasing fitness and promoting the evolution of phenotypic plasticity
Authors: Prudic, K.L
Stoehr, A.M
Wasik, B.R
Monteiro, A 
Keywords: adaptive radiation
butterfly
evolutionary biology
fitness
oviposition
phenotypic plasticity
reciprocity
reproductive success
survival
visual cue
wing
animal
butterfly
evolution
female
forelimb
genetic selection
genetics
insect
longevity
male
phenotype
physiology
pigmentation
predation
reproduction
reproductive fitness
season
Animals
Biological Evolution
Butterflies
Female
Genetic Fitness
genetics
Insects
Longevity
Male
Phenotype
physiology
physiology
physiology
Pigmentation
Predatory Behavior
Reproduction
Seasons
Selection, Genetic
Wings, Animal
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Royal Society of London
Citation: Prudic, K.L, Stoehr, A.M, Wasik, B.R, Monteiro, A (2014). Eyespots deflect predator attack increasing fitness and promoting the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282 (1798) : 20141531. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1531
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Some eyespots are thought to deflect attack away from the vulnerable body, yet there is limited empirical evidence for this function and its adaptive advantage. Here, we demonstrate the conspicuous ventral hindwing eyespots found on Bicyclus anynana butterflies protect against invertebrate predators, specifically praying mantids. Wet season (WS) butterflies with larger, brighter eyespots were easier for mantids to detect, but more difficult to capture compared to dry season (DS) butterflies with small, dull eyespots. Mantids attacked the wing eyespots of WS butterflies more frequently resulting in greater butterfly survival and reproductive success. With a reciprocal eyespot transplant, we demonstrated the fitness benefits of eyespots were independent of butterfly behaviour. Regardless of whether the butterfly was WS or DS, large marginal eyespots pasted on the hindwings increased butterfly survival and successful oviposition during predation encounters. In previous studies, DS B. anynana experienced delayed detection by vertebrate predators, but both forms suffered low survival once detected. Our results suggest predator abundance, identity and phenology may all be important selective forces for B. anynana. Thus, reciprocal selection between invertebrate and vertebrate predators across seasons may contribute to the evolution of the B. anynana polyphenism. © 2014 The Authors.
Source Title: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/180133
ISSN: 0962-8452
DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1531
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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