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Title: West Nile virus drug discovery
Authors: Lim, S.P 
Shi, P.-Y 
Keywords: agmatine
antivirus agent
benzotriazole derivative
castanospermine 6 butyrate
cyclosporin A
guanosine triphosphate
Human immunodeficiency virus proteinase inhibitor
inosinate dehydrogenase
mycophenolic acid
nitd 982
nonstructural protein 3
nonstructural protein 4
nonstructural protein 5
nucleoside analog
peptide hydrolase inhibitor
propionic acid
recombinant antibody
recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody
RNA directed RNA polymerase
stress activated protein kinase
unclassified drug
unindexed drug
West Nile vaccine
antiviral activity
blood brain barrier
computer model
conformational transition
crystal structure
Dengue virus
DNA methylation
drug screening
endoplasmic reticulum
gene mutation
Hepatitis C virus
high throughput screening
IC 50
molecular docking
nuclear magnetic resonance
phase 1 clinical trial (topic)
phase 2 clinical trial (topic)
structure activity relation
virus replication
West Nile fever
West Nile flavivirus
Antibodies, Viral
Antiviral Agents
Clinical Trials as Topic
Drug Discovery
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Drug Repositioning
West Nile virus
Issue Date: 2013
Citation: Lim, S.P, Shi, P.-Y (2013). West Nile virus drug discovery. Viruses 5 (12) : 2977-3006. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Viruses
ISSN: 19994915
DOI: 10.3390/v5122977
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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