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Title: Origin and differentiation of microglia
Authors: Ginhoux, F 
Lim, S
Hoeffel, G
Low, D
Huber, T 
Keywords: cell proliferation
central nervous system disease
immune response
mononuclear phagocyte
nerve cell differentiation
nerve cell network
nerve function
nervous system development
steady state
stem cell
synaptic transmission
yolk sac
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Citation: Ginhoux, F, Lim, S, Hoeffel, G, Low, D, Huber, T (2013). Origin and differentiation of microglia. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience (MAR). ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS). Adequate microglial function is crucial for a healthy CNS. Microglia are not only the first immune sentinels of infection, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune responses locally, but are also involved in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. Emerging data are showing new and fundamental roles for microglia in the control of neuronal proliferation and differentiation, as well as in the formation of synaptic connections. While microglia have been studied for decades, a long history of experimental misinterpretation meant that their true origins remained debated. However, recent studies on microglial origin indicate that these cells in fact arise early during development from progenitors in the embryonic yolk sac that seed the brain rudiment and, remarkably, appear to persist there into adulthood. Here, we review the history of microglial cells and discuss the latest advances in our understanding of their origin, differentiation and homeostasis, which provides new insights into their roles in health and disease. © 2013 Ginhoux, Lim, Hoeffel, Low and Huber.
Source Title: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
ISSN: 16625102
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00045
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