Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0906-x
Title: The epidemiology of subclinical malaria infections in South-East Asia: Findings from cross-sectional surveys in Thailand-Myanmar border areas, Cambodia, and Vietnam
Authors: Imwong, M
Nguyen, T.N
Tripura, R
Peto, T.J
Lee, S.J
Lwin, K.M
Suangkanarat, P
Jeeyapant, A
Vihokhern, B
Wongsaen, K
Van Hue, D
Dong, L.T
Nguyen, T.-U
Lubell, Y
Von Seidlein, L
Dhorda, M
Promnarate, C
Snounou, G
Malleret, B 
Rénia, L 
Keereecharoen, L
Singhasivanon, P
Sirithiranont, P
Chalk, J
Nguon, C
Hien, T.T
Day, N
White, N.J
Dondorp, A
Nosten, F.
Keywords: artesunate
chloroquine
dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine
mefloquine
pyrimethamine plus sulfadoxine
adolescent
adult
Article
blood volume
Cambodia
controlled study
cross-sectional study
diagnostic test
disease transmission
female
fever
human
limit of detection
major clinical study
malaria
male
microscopy
mixed infection
Myanmar
parasitemia
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
prevalence
quantitative analysis
real time polymerase chain reaction
Southeast Asia
Thailand
Viet Nam
Asymptomatic Infections
child
infant
malaria
preschool child
young adult
Adolescent
Adult
Asia, Southeastern
Asymptomatic Infections
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Infant
Malaria
Male
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
Young Adult
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Citation: Imwong, M, Nguyen, T.N, Tripura, R, Peto, T.J, Lee, S.J, Lwin, K.M, Suangkanarat, P, Jeeyapant, A, Vihokhern, B, Wongsaen, K, Van Hue, D, Dong, L.T, Nguyen, T.-U, Lubell, Y, Von Seidlein, L, Dhorda, M, Promnarate, C, Snounou, G, Malleret, B, Rénia, L, Keereecharoen, L, Singhasivanon, P, Sirithiranont, P, Chalk, J, Nguon, C, Hien, T.T, Day, N, White, N.J, Dondorp, A, Nosten, F. (2015). The epidemiology of subclinical malaria infections in South-East Asia: Findings from cross-sectional surveys in Thailand-Myanmar border areas, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Malaria Journal 14 (1) : 381. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0906-x
Abstract: Background: The importance of the submicroscopic reservoir of Plasmodium infections for malaria elimination depends on its size, which is generally considered small in low transmission settings. The precise estimation of this reservoir requires more sensitive parasite detection methods. The prevalence of asymptomatic, sub-microscopic malaria was assessed by a sensitive, high blood volume quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method in three countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in three villages in western Cambodia, four villages along the Thailand-Myanmar border and four villages in southwest Vietnam. Malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Plasmodium falciparum/pan malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy and a high volume ultra-sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (HVUSqPCR: limit of detection 22 parasites/mL). All villagers older than 6 months were invited to participate. Results: A census before the surveys identified 7355 residents in the study villages. Parasite prevalence was 224/5008 (4 %) by RDT, 229/5111 (5 %) by microscopy, and 988/4975 (20 %) when assessed by HVUSqPCR. Of these 164 (3 %) were infected with P. falciparum, 357 (7 %) with Plasmodium vivax, 56 (1 %) with a mixed infection, and 411 (8 %) had parasite densities that were too low for species identification. A history of fever, male sex, and age of 15 years or older were independently associated with parasitaemia in a multivariate regression model stratified by site. Conclusion: Light microscopy and RDTs identified only a quarter of all parasitaemic participants. The asymptomatic Plasmodium reservoir is considerable, even in low transmission settings. Novel strategies are needed to eliminate this previously under recognized reservoir of malaria transmission. © 2015 Imwong et al.
Source Title: Malaria Journal
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/174279
ISSN: 14752875
DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0906-x
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