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Title: Exactin: A specific inhibitor of Factor X activation by extrinsic tenase complex from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus
Authors: Girish V.M. 
Kini R.M.R. 
Keywords: anticoagulant agent
blood clotting factor 10
cancer procoagulant
cysteine proteinase
snake venom
tumor protein
antagonists and inhibitors
blood clotting test
circular dichroism
prothrombin time
sequence analysis
Blood Coagulation Tests
Circular Dichroism
Cysteine Endopeptidases
Elapid Venoms
Factor X
Neoplasm Proteins
Prothrombin Time
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: Girish V.M., Kini R.M.R. (2016). Exactin: A specific inhibitor of Factor X activation by extrinsic tenase complex from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus. Scientific Reports 6 : 32036. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Unwanted clots lead to heart attack and stroke that result in a large number of deaths. Currently available anticoagulants have some drawbacks including their non-specific actions. Therefore novel anticoagulants that target specific steps in the coagulation pathway are being sought. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel anticoagulant protein from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus (African Ringhals cobra) that specifically inhibits factor X (FX) activation by the extrinsic tenase complex (ETC) and thus named as exactin. Exactin belongs to the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family, with high sequence identity to neurotoxins and low identity to the well-characterized 3FTx anticoagulants-hemextin and naniproin. It is a mixed-type inhibitor of ETC with the kinetic constants, Ki' and Ki determined as 30.62 ± 7.73 nM and 153.75 ± 17.96 nM, respectively. Exactin does not bind to the active site of factor VIIa and factor Xa based on its weak inhibition (IC 50 ‰ 300 ?M) to the amidolytic activities of these proteases. Exactin shows exquisite macromolecular specificity to FX activation as compared to factor IX activation by ETC. Exactin thus displays a distinct mechanism when compared to other anticoagulants targeting ETC, with its selective preference to ETC-FX [ES] complex. © The Author(s) 2016.
Source Title: Scientific Reports
ISSN: 20452322
DOI: 10.1038/srep32036
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