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|Exactin: A specific inhibitor of Factor X activation by extrinsic tenase complex from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus
blood clotting factor 10
antagonists and inhibitors
blood clotting test
Blood Coagulation Tests
Sequence Analysis, Protein
|Girish V.M., Kini R.M.R. (2016). Exactin: A specific inhibitor of Factor X activation by extrinsic tenase complex from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus. Scientific Reports 6 : 32036. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32036
|Unwanted clots lead to heart attack and stroke that result in a large number of deaths. Currently available anticoagulants have some drawbacks including their non-specific actions. Therefore novel anticoagulants that target specific steps in the coagulation pathway are being sought. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel anticoagulant protein from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus (African Ringhals cobra) that specifically inhibits factor X (FX) activation by the extrinsic tenase complex (ETC) and thus named as exactin. Exactin belongs to the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family, with high sequence identity to neurotoxins and low identity to the well-characterized 3FTx anticoagulants-hemextin and naniproin. It is a mixed-type inhibitor of ETC with the kinetic constants, Ki' and Ki determined as 30.62 ± 7.73 nM and 153.75 ± 17.96 nM, respectively. Exactin does not bind to the active site of factor VIIa and factor Xa based on its weak inhibition (IC 50 ‰ 300 ?M) to the amidolytic activities of these proteases. Exactin shows exquisite macromolecular specificity to FX activation as compared to factor IX activation by ETC. Exactin thus displays a distinct mechanism when compared to other anticoagulants targeting ETC, with its selective preference to ETC-FX [ES] complex. © The Author(s) 2016.
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