Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168596
Title: Molecular evidence of transmission of influenza A/H1N1 2009 on a University Campus
Authors: Virk R.K. 
Gunalan V.
Lee H.K.
Inoue M. 
Chua C. 
Tan B.-H. 
Tambyah P.A. 
Keywords: virus hemagglutinin
2009 H1N1 influenza
adult
amino acid sequence
Article
controlled study
female
gene sequence
human
Influenza A virus (H1N1)
major clinical study
male
nucleotide sequence
phylogenetic tree
phylogeny
phylogeography
polymerase chain reaction
sequence alignment
Singapore
social interaction
unindexed sequence
university
virus transmission
Influenza A virus (H1N1)
Influenza, Human
molecular epidemiology
phylogeography
transmission
university
virology
young adult
Adult
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human
Male
Molecular Epidemiology
Phylogeny
Phylogeography
Singapore
Universities
Young Adult
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Virk R.K., Gunalan V., Lee H.K., Inoue M., Chua C., Tan B.-H., Tambyah P.A. (2017). Molecular evidence of transmission of influenza A/H1N1 2009 on a University Campus. PLoS ONE 12 (1) : 168596. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168596
Abstract: Background In the recent years, the data on the molecular epidemiology of influenza viruses have expanded enormously because of the availability of cutting-edge sequencing technologies. However, much of the information is from the temperate regions with few studies from tropical regions such as South-east Asia. Despite the fact that influenza has been known to transmit rapidly within semi-closed communities, such as military camps and educational institutions, data are limited from these communities. Objectives To determine the phylogeography of influenza viruses on a university campus, we examined the spatial distribution of influenza virus on the National University of Singapore (NUS) campus. Methods Consenting students from the NUS who sought medical attention at the UHC provided two nasopharyngeal swabs and demographic data. PCR was used for detection of influenza viruses. 34 full-genomes of pH1N1/09 viruses were successfully sequenced by Sanger method and concatenated using Geneious R7. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using these 34 sequences and 1518 global sequences. Phylogeographic analysis was done using BaTS software and Association index and Fitch parsimony scores were determined. Results Integrating whole genome sequencing data with epidemiological data, we found strong evidence of influenza transmission on campus as isolates from students residing on-campus were highly similar to each other (AI, P value = 0.009; PS, P value = 0.04). There was also evidence of multiple introductions from the community. Conclusions Such data are useful in formulating pandemic preparedness plans which can use these communities as sentinel sites for detection and monitoring of emerging respiratory viral infections. © 2017 Virk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/166028
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168596
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