Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201295
Title: Surveillance for respiratory and diarrheal pathogens at the human-pig interface in Sarawak, Malaysia
Authors: Borkenhagen L.K.
Mallinson K.A.
Tsao R.W.
Ha S.-J.
Lim W.-H.
Toh T.-H.
Anderson B.D.
Fieldhouse J.K.
Philo S.E.
Chong K.-S.
Lindsley W.G.
Ramirez A.
Lowe J.F.
Coleman K.K. 
Gray G.C. 
Keywords: Adenoviridae
aerosol
Article
controlled study
Coronavirinae
cross-sectional study
diarrhea
disease surveillance
Encephalomyocarditis virus
feces analysis
human
human animal interface
Influenza virus
Malaysia
nasal lavage fluid
nonhuman
occupational exposure
organismal interaction
pig
Porcine circovirus 2
porcine rotavirus
respiratory virus
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
water sampling
work environment
agricultural worker
animal
diarrhea
female
male
respiratory tract infection
swine disease
transmission
virology
virus
virus infection
Animals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diarrhea
Farmers
Female
Humans
Malaysia
Male
Occupational Exposure
Respiratory Tract Infections
Swine
Swine Diseases
Virus Diseases
Viruses
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Borkenhagen L.K., Mallinson K.A., Tsao R.W., Ha S.-J., Lim W.-H., Toh T.-H., Anderson B.D., Fieldhouse J.K., Philo S.E., Chong K.-S., Lindsley W.G., Ramirez A., Lowe J.F., Coleman K.K., Gray G.C. (2018). Surveillance for respiratory and diarrheal pathogens at the human-pig interface in Sarawak, Malaysia. PLoS ONE 13 (7) : e0201295. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201295
Abstract: Background The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses. Objectives To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways. Study This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. Pig feces, pig oral secretions, bioaerosols, and worker nasal wash samples were collected and analyzed via rPCR and rRT-PCR for respiratory and diarrheal viruses. Results In all, 55 pig fecal, 49 pig oral or water, 45 bioaerosol, and 78 worker nasal wash samples were collected across 16 sites. PCV2 was detected in 21 pig fecal, 43 pig oral or water, 3 bioaerosol, and 4 worker nasal wash samples. In addition, one or more bioaerosol or pig samples were positive for EV, IAV, and RVC, and one or more worker samples were positive for ADV, CoV, IBV, and IDV. Conclusions This study demonstrates that nucleic acids from a number of targeted viruses were present in pig oral secretions and pig fecal samples, and that several viruses were detected in bioaerosol samples or in the nasal passages of humans with occupational exposure to pigs. These results demonstrate the need for future research in strengthening viral surveillance at the human-animal interface, specifically through expanded bioaerosol sampling efforts and a seroepidemiological study of individuals with exposure to pigs in this region for PCV2 infection. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/165898
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201295
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