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Title: Integrating cervical cancer with HIV healthcare services: A systematic review
Authors: Sigfrid L.
Murphy G.
Haldane V. 
Chuah F.L.H. 
Ong S.E. 
Cervero-Liceras F. 
Watt N.
Alvaro A.
Otero-Garcia L.
Balabanova D.
Hogarth S.
Maimaris W.
Buse K.
McKee M.
Piot P.
Perel P.
Legido-Quigley H. 
Keywords: Article
cancer risk
cancer screening
cause of death
clinical outcome
follow up
health care
health care access
health care delivery
health care planning
health service
Human immunodeficiency virus infection
public health problem
staff training
systematic review
uterine cervix cancer
HIV Infections
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
HIV Infections
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Sigfrid L., Murphy G., Haldane V., Chuah F.L.H., Ong S.E., Cervero-Liceras F., Watt N., Alvaro A., Otero-Garcia L., Balabanova D., Hogarth S., Maimaris W., Buse K., McKee M., Piot P., Perel P., Legido-Quigley H. (2017). Integrating cervical cancer with HIV healthcare services: A systematic review. PLoS ONE 12 (7) : e0181156. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem. Even though readily preventable, it is the fourth leading cause of death in women globally. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer, highlighting the need for access to screening and treatment for this population. Integration of services has been proposed as an effective way of improving access to cervical cancer screening especially in areas of high HIV prevalence as well as lower resourced settings. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of programs integrating cervical cancer and HIV services globally, including feasibility, acceptability, clinical outcomes and facilitators for service delivery. Methods This is part of a larger systematic review on integration of services for HIV and non-communicable diseases. To be considered for inclusion studies had to report on programs to integrate cervical cancer and HIV services at the level of service delivery. We searched multiple databases including Global Health, Medline and Embase from inception until December 2015. Articles were screened independently by two reviewers for inclusion and data were extracted and assessed for risk of bias. Main results 11,057 records were identified initially. 7,616 articles were screened by title and abstract for inclusion. A total of 21 papers reporting interventions integrating cervical cancer care and HIV services met the criteria for inclusion. All but one study described integration of cervical cancer screening services into existing HIV services. Most programs also offered treatment of minor lesions, a ‘screen-and-treat’ approach, with some also offering treatment of larger lesions within the same visit. Three distinct models of integration were identified. One model described integration within the same clinic through training of existing staff. Another model described integration through co-location of services, with the third model describing programs of integration through complex coordination across the care pathway. The studies suggested that integration of cervical cancer services with HIV services using all models was feasible and acceptable to patients. However, several barriers were reported, including high loss to follow up for further treatment, limited human-resources, and logistical and chain management support. Using visual screening methods can facilitate screening and treatment of minor to larger lesions in a single ‘screen-and-treat’ visit. Complex integration in a single-visit was shown to reduce loss to follow up. The use of existing health infrastructure and funding together with comprehensive staff training and supervision, community engagement and digital technology were some of the many other facilitators for integration reported across models. Conclusions This review shows that integration of cervical cancer screening and treatment with HIV services using different models of service delivery is feasible as well as acceptable to women living with HIV. However, the descriptive nature of most papers and lack of data on the effect on long-term outcomes for HIV or cervical cancer limits the inference on the effectiveness of the integrated programs. There is a need for strengthening of health systems across the care continuum and for high quality studies evaluating the effect of integration on HIV as well as on cervical cancer outcomes. © 2017 Sigfrid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181156
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