Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143123
Title: A comparison of microbial water quality and diversity for ballast and tropical harbor waters
Authors: Ng C. 
Le T.-H. 
Goh S.G. 
Liang L. 
Kim Y.
Rose J.B.
Yew-Hoong K.G. 
Keywords: chloramphenicol
florfenicol
sulfonamide
surface water
trimethoprim
antiinfective agent
bacterial protein
chloramphenicol
RNA 16S
sea water
sulfonamide
trimethoprim
Alphaproteobacteria
antibiotic resistance
Article
bacterial gene
bacterial survival
bacterium detection
cell viability
cfr gene
comparative study
controlled study
dfrA gene
Enterococcus
ereA gene
ermG gene
Escherichia coli
Flavobacteriales
microbial contamination
microbial diversity
next generation sequencing
nonhuman
Oceanospirillales
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
pyrosequencing
RNA 16S gene
Salmonella
sul1 gene
Synechococcus
tetO gene
Thiotrichales
Vibrio
water contamination
water pollution indicator
water quality
bacterium
cluster analysis
DNA sequence
drug effects
genetics
high throughput sequencing
microbiology
principal component analysis
real time polymerase chain reaction
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Bacteria
Bacterial Proteins
Chloramphenicol
Cluster Analysis
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Enterococcus
Escherichia coli
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Principal Component Analysis
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Salmonella
Seawater
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sulfonamides
Trimethoprim
Vibrio
Water Quality
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Ng C., Le T.-H., Goh S.G., Liang L., Kim Y., Rose J.B., Yew-Hoong K.G. (2015). A comparison of microbial water quality and diversity for ballast and tropical harbor waters. PLoS ONE 10 (11) : e0143123. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143123
Abstract: Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and á-proteobacteria (SAR11 members), while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as ã-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp.) and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp.) dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG) targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL), dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL) and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL) genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05) between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a broad-brush description of difference in microbial composition and diversity between open oceans and tropical coastal environments through the use of next generation sequencing technology. © 2015 Ng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source arecredited.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/165761
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143123
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