Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143123
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dc.titleA comparison of microbial water quality and diversity for ballast and tropical harbor waters
dc.contributor.authorNg C.
dc.contributor.authorLe T.-H.
dc.contributor.authorGoh S.G.
dc.contributor.authorLiang L.
dc.contributor.authorKim Y.
dc.contributor.authorRose J.B.
dc.contributor.authorYew-Hoong K.G.
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-19T07:51:04Z
dc.date.available2020-03-19T07:51:04Z
dc.date.issued2015
dc.identifier.citationNg C., Le T.-H., Goh S.G., Liang L., Kim Y., Rose J.B., Yew-Hoong K.G. (2015). A comparison of microbial water quality and diversity for ballast and tropical harbor waters. PLoS ONE 10 (11) : e0143123. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143123
dc.identifier.issn19326203
dc.identifier.urihttps://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/165761
dc.description.abstractIndicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and á-proteobacteria (SAR11 members), while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as ã-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp.) and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp.) dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG) targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL), dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL) and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL) genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05) between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a broad-brush description of difference in microbial composition and diversity between open oceans and tropical coastal environments through the use of next generation sequencing technology. © 2015 Ng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source arecredited.
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science
dc.sourceUnpaywall 20200320
dc.subjectchloramphenicol
dc.subjectflorfenicol
dc.subjectsulfonamide
dc.subjectsurface water
dc.subjecttrimethoprim
dc.subjectantiinfective agent
dc.subjectbacterial protein
dc.subjectchloramphenicol
dc.subjectRNA 16S
dc.subjectsea water
dc.subjectsulfonamide
dc.subjecttrimethoprim
dc.subjectAlphaproteobacteria
dc.subjectantibiotic resistance
dc.subjectArticle
dc.subjectbacterial gene
dc.subjectbacterial survival
dc.subjectbacterium detection
dc.subjectcell viability
dc.subjectcfr gene
dc.subjectcomparative study
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectdfrA gene
dc.subjectEnterococcus
dc.subjectereA gene
dc.subjectermG gene
dc.subjectEscherichia coli
dc.subjectFlavobacteriales
dc.subjectmicrobial contamination
dc.subjectmicrobial diversity
dc.subjectnext generation sequencing
dc.subjectnonhuman
dc.subjectOceanospirillales
dc.subjectPseudomonas aeruginosa
dc.subjectpyrosequencing
dc.subjectRNA 16S gene
dc.subjectSalmonella
dc.subjectsul1 gene
dc.subjectSynechococcus
dc.subjecttetO gene
dc.subjectThiotrichales
dc.subjectVibrio
dc.subjectwater contamination
dc.subjectwater pollution indicator
dc.subjectwater quality
dc.subjectbacterium
dc.subjectcluster analysis
dc.subjectDNA sequence
dc.subjectdrug effects
dc.subjectgenetics
dc.subjecthigh throughput sequencing
dc.subjectmicrobiology
dc.subjectprincipal component analysis
dc.subjectreal time polymerase chain reaction
dc.subjectAnti-Bacterial Agents
dc.subjectBacteria
dc.subjectBacterial Proteins
dc.subjectChloramphenicol
dc.subjectCluster Analysis
dc.subjectDrug Resistance, Microbial
dc.subjectEnterococcus
dc.subjectEscherichia coli
dc.subjectHigh-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
dc.subjectPrincipal Component Analysis
dc.subjectReal-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
dc.subjectRNA, Ribosomal, 16S
dc.subjectSalmonella
dc.subjectSeawater
dc.subjectSequence Analysis, DNA
dc.subjectSulfonamides
dc.subjectTrimethoprim
dc.subjectVibrio
dc.subjectWater Quality
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentDEPT OF SURGERY
dc.contributor.departmentNUS ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
dc.contributor.departmentDEPT OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGG
dc.contributor.departmentDEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
dc.description.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0143123
dc.description.sourcetitlePLoS ONE
dc.description.volume10
dc.description.issue11
dc.description.pagee0143123
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