Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1145/2934685
Title: Yield, Area, and Energy Optimization in STT-MRAMs Using Failure-Aware ECC
Authors: Pajouhi, Zoha
Fong, Xuanyao 
Raghunathan, Anand
Roy, Kaushik
Keywords: Science & Technology
Technology
Computer Science, Hardware & Architecture
Engineering, Electrical & Electronic
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Computer Science
Engineering
Science & Technology - Other Topics
Embedded memories
emerging technologies
LOW-COST
SPIN
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2017
Publisher: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY
Citation: Pajouhi, Zoha, Fong, Xuanyao, Raghunathan, Anand, Roy, Kaushik (2017-03-01). Yield, Area, and Energy Optimization in STT-MRAMs Using Failure-Aware ECC. ACM JOURNAL ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS 13 (2). ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1145/2934685
Abstract: © 2016 ACM. Spin-Transfer Torque MRAMs are attractive due to their non-volatility, high density, and zero leakage. However, STT-MRAMs suffer from poor reliability due to shared read and write paths. Additionally, conflicting requirements for data retention and writeability (both related to the energy barrier height of the storage device) makes design more challenging. Furthermore, the energy barrier height depends on the geometry of the storage. Any variations in the geometry of the storage device lead to variations in the energy barrier height. In order to address the poor reliability of STT-MRAMs, usage of Error Correcting Codes (ECC) has been proposed. Unlike traditional CMOS memory technologies, ECC is expected to correct both soft and hard errors in STT-MRAMs. To achieve acceptable yield with low write power, stronger ECC is required, resulting in increased number of encoded bits and degraded memory capacity. In this article, we propose Failure-aware ECC (FaECC), which masks permanent faults while maintaining the same correction capability for soft errors without increased number of encoded bits. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of process variations on run-time reliability of STT-MRAMs. In order to analyze the effectiveness of our methodology, we developed a cross-layer simulation framework that consists of device, circuit and array level analysis of STT-MRAM memory arrays. Our results show that using FaECC relaxes the requirements on the energy barrier height, which reduces the write energy and results in smaller access transistor size and memory array area.
Source Title: ACM JOURNAL ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/156196
ISSN: 1550-4832
1550-4840
DOI: 10.1145/2934685
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