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Title: Is there a link between passive smoke exposure and early-onset myopia in preschool Asian children?
Authors: Chua, Sharon Yu Lin
Ikram, Mohammad Kamran 
Tan, Chuen Seng 
Stone, Richard Alan
Cai, Shirong 
Gluckman, Peter D. 
Chong, Yap Seng 
Yap, Fabian Kok Peng 
Wong, Tien Yin 
Ngo, Cheryl Shufen 
Saw, Seang-Mei 
Keywords: axial length
passive smoke
spherical equivalent
young children
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2016
Publisher: Wiley
Citation: Chua, Sharon Yu Lin, Ikram, Mohammad Kamran, Tan, Chuen Seng, Stone, Richard Alan, Cai, Shirong, Gluckman, Peter D., Chong, Yap Seng, Yap, Fabian Kok Peng, Wong, Tien Yin, Ngo, Cheryl Shufen, Saw, Seang-Mei (2016-07-01). Is there a link between passive smoke exposure and early-onset myopia in preschool Asian children?. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36 (4) : 370-380. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the association of passive tobacco smoke exposure with early-onset myopia among three-year-old children in Singapore.METHODS: Pregnant mothers who attended their first trimester clinic at two major maternity units were recruited into the GUSTO birth cohort. The current analysis comprised 572 three-year-old children, who underwent cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length (AL) measurements. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) of ó-0.50 dioptres (D). Either parent completed questionnaires describing their child's exposure to passive smoke at six months, one and two years of age.RESULTS: There were 197 children (36.2%) who were exposed to passive smoke from birth to before six months. Compared to non-exposed children, children exposed to any passive smoke from birth to before six months experienced greater myopia prevalence (adjusted OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 1.24-6.29; p = 0.01). The odds of myopia in a child was greater if a smoker smokes at home, in the family car, or in the presence of the child (adjusted OR = 3.95; 95% CI: 1.41-11.09; p < 0.01) compared to non-exposed child. In contrast to myopia, childhood exposure to passive smoke did not systematically shift mean values for SE or AL.CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective birth cohort study, we found that childhood exposure to passive smoke from birth to before six months slightly increased the risk of early-onset myopia. This may indicate a delayed response to passive smoke exposure before six months and the development of myopia at three years of age. Our study is limited by the small number of myopic children at this young age. Thus, larger prospective studies using more objective cotinine level measures are required to fully establish and understand the influence of tobacco smoke on refractive development in older children. @ 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics @ 2016 The College of Optometrists.
Source Title: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics
ISSN: 02755408
DOI: 10.1111/opo.12285
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