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Title: Air pollution in Singapore: Its multielemental aspect as measured by nuclear analytical techniques
Authors: Orlić, I. 
Wenlan, B.
Watt, F. 
Tang, S.M. 
Issue Date: 1997
Citation: Orlić, I., Wenlan, B., Watt, F., Tang, S.M. (1997). Air pollution in Singapore: Its multielemental aspect as measured by nuclear analytical techniques. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 44 (1-3) : 455-470. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Aerosol samples were collected in 1994 in Singapore on two occasions: once in June during the normal meteorological conditions and later in October during a long haze period caused by the heavy forest fire in Indonesia. Filtration and impaction collection methods were used simultaneously so that detailed elemental analysis of bulk as well as of different size fractions could be performed. Accelerator based nuclear analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RES) and Nuclear Microscopy (NM) were used for analysis. These techniques are fast, truly multielemental and perfectly suited for routine analysis of a large number of aerosol samples. Typically all samples were analysed for the following 24 elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Detection limits for bulk analysis were generally below ng/m3 and for single particle analysis absolute detectable mass was approximately 10-17 g. Additionally, trace elements such as Cd, Sn, Sb and Ba whose characteristic X-ray lines were normally 'obscured' by the lines of other more abundant elements, were detected when analysing by nuclear microscope in single particle mode. Judging by the average concentrations of lead and sulphur which are good indicators of industrial component of air pollution the situation in Singapore is satisfactory. Pb was typically found in concentrations of 5 to 50 ng/m3 and sulphur in concentrations of 1 to 2 μg/m3. These concentrations are well below limits set by the World Health Organisation (1500 ng/m3 and 40 μg/m3, respectively). On the other hand during the haze period the average concentrations of elements like S, K, Ti, V, Mn, Ni, As and Pb were found to be 3 to 6 times higher than usual. Results are presented and discussed.
Source Title: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
ISSN: 01676369
DOI: 10.1023/A:1005773932530
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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