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Title: (N,F)-Co-doped TiO 2: Synthesis, anatase-rutile conversion and Li-cycling properties
Authors: Cherian, C.T.
Reddy, M.V. 
Magdaleno, T.
Sow, C.-H. 
Ramanujachary, K.V.
Rao, G.V.S.
Chowdari, B.V.R. 
Issue Date: 7-Feb-2012
Citation: Cherian, C.T., Reddy, M.V., Magdaleno, T., Sow, C.-H., Ramanujachary, K.V., Rao, G.V.S., Chowdari, B.V.R. (2012-02-07). (N,F)-Co-doped TiO 2: Synthesis, anatase-rutile conversion and Li-cycling properties. CrystEngComm 14 (3) : 978-986. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Nitrogen and fluorine co-doped Ti-oxide, TiO 1.9N 0.05F 0.15 (TiO 2(N,F)), with the anatase structure is prepared by the pyro-ammonolysis of TiF 3. For the first time it is shown that TiO 2(N,F) and anatase-TiO 2 are converted to nanosize-rutile structure by high energy ball milling (HEB). The polymorphs are characterised by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectra. The Li storage and cycling properties are examined by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry in the voltage range 1-2.8 V vs. Li at 30 mA g -1. The performance of TiO 2(N,F) is much better than pure anatase-TiO 2 and showed a reversible capacity of 95 (±3) mA h g -1 stable up to 25 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of ∼98%. Nano-phase rutile TiO 2(N,F) showed an initial reversible capacity of 210 mA h g -1 which slowly degraded to 165 (±3) mA h g -1 after 50 cycles and stabilised between the 50 th and 60 th cycle whereas the nano-phase rutile-TiO 2 (prepared by HEB of anatase-TiO 2) exhibited a reversible capacity of 130 (±3) mA h g -1 which is stable in the range, 10-60 cycles. The crystal structure of anatase TiO 2(N,F) is not destroyed upon Li-cycling and is confirmed by ex situ XRD and HR-TEM. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Source Title: CrystEngComm
ISSN: 14668033
DOI: 10.1039/c1ce05685a
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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