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Title: Vitamin E TPGS used as emulsifier in the solvent evaporation/extraction technique for fabrication of polymeric nanospheres for controlled release of paclitaxel (Taxol®)
Authors: Mu, L. 
Feng, S.S 
Keywords: Anticancer drugs
Drug encapsulation efficiency
Surfactant stabiliser
Issue Date: 23-Apr-2002
Citation: Mu, L., Feng, S.S (2002-04-23). Vitamin E TPGS used as emulsifier in the solvent evaporation/extraction technique for fabrication of polymeric nanospheres for controlled release of paclitaxel (Taxol®). Journal of Controlled Release 80 (1-3) : 129-144. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS) was applied in the present investigation as surfactant stabiliser to fabricate paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanospheres in the solvent evaporation/extraction technique with successful achievement. Laser light scattering system (LLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterise the nanopsheres fabricated in various recipes under various preparation conditions for size and size distribution, surface morphology, thermogram property and surface chemistry. Encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release was measured by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The outcomes were discussed with respect to the development of polymeric nanospheres delivery system of the anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Taxol®). The produced nanospheres were found in fine spherical shape with smooth surfaces and without aggregation or adhesion. There was no significant difference in morphology between the vitamin E TPGS emulsified and PVA emulsified PLGA nanospheres. However, it was found that, in comparison with the traditional chemical emulsifier PVA, the TPGS could significantly improve the encapsulation efficiency of the drug in the PLGA nanospheres, which could be as high as 100%. The size of the vitamin E TPGS emulsified nanospheres ranged from 300 to 800 nm and the size distribution was narrow with polydispersity of 0.005-0.045. XPS investigation demonstrated that there were residual surfactant molecules remained on the surface although the TPGS could be washed out relatively thoroughly in the process of nanospheres formation. This finding was also confirmed by FTIR-PAS investigation of the nanospheres. The in vitro release indicated that the release property of paclitaxel from the nanospheres strongly depends on the emulsifier type employed in the fabrication. Our research shows that vitamin E TPGS could be an ideal and effective emulsifier. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Controlled Release
ISSN: 01683659
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-3659(02)00025-1
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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