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Title: An underwater acoustic MAC protocol using reverse opportunistic packet appending
Authors: Ng, H.-H.
Soh, W.-S. 
Motani, M. 
Keywords: Handshaking-based underwater MAC protocols
High latency networks
Media access control
Reverse opportunistic packet appending
Underwater acoustic networks
Issue Date: 4-Oct-2013
Citation: Ng, H.-H., Soh, W.-S., Motani, M. (2013-10-04). An underwater acoustic MAC protocol using reverse opportunistic packet appending. Computer Networks 57 (14) : 2733-2751. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Underwater communication primarily utilizes propagation of acoustic waves in water. Its unique characteristics, including slow propagation speed and low data rates, pose many challenges to Media Access Control (MAC) protocol design. In most existing handshaking-based underwater MAC protocols, only an initiating sender can transmit data packets to its intended receiver after a channel reservation through a Request-to-Send (RTS)/Clear-to-Send (CTS) handshake. This conventional single-node transmission approach is particularly inefficient in underwater environments, as it does not account for long propagation delays. To improve channel utilization in high latency environments, we propose a novel approach that exploits the idle waiting time during a 2-way handshake to set up concurrent transmissions from multiple nodes. The sender can coordinate multiple first-hop neighbors (appenders) to use the current handshake opportunity to transmit (append) their data packets with partially overlapping transmission times. After the sender finishes transmitting its packets to its own receiver, it starts to receive incoming appended packets that arrive in a collision-free packet train. This not only reduces the amount of time spent on control signaling, but it also greatly improves packet exchange efficiency. Based on this idea, we propose an asynchronous, single-channel handshaking-based MAC protocol based on reverse opportunistic packet appending (ROPA). From extensive simulations (single- and multi-hop networks) and comparisons with several existing MAC protocols, including MACA-U, MACA-UPT, BiC-MAC, Slotted-FAMA, DACAP, unslotted Aloha, we show that ROPA significantly increases channel utilization and offers performance gains in throughput and delay while attaining a stable saturation throughput. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Computer Networks
ISSN: 13891286
DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2013.06.007
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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