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|Title:||The Muscoidea (Diptera: Calyptratae) are paraphyletic: Evidence from four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes||Authors:||Kutty, S.N.
|Issue Date:||Nov-2008||Citation:||Kutty, S.N., Pape, T., Pont, A., Wiegmann, B.M., Meier, R. (2008-11). The Muscoidea (Diptera: Calyptratae) are paraphyletic: Evidence from four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (2) : 639-652. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.08.012||Abstract:||Approximately 5% of the known species-level diversity of Diptera belongs to the Muscoidea with its approximately 7000 described species. Despite including some of the most abundant and well known flies, the phylogenetic relationships within this superfamily are poorly understood. Previous attempts at reconstructing the relationships based on morphology and relatively small molecular data sets were only moderately successful. Here, we use molecular data for 127 exemplar species of the Muscoidea, two species from the Hippoboscoidea, ten species representing the Oestroidea and seven outgroup species from four acalyptrate superfamilies. Four mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S, COI, and Cytb, and four nuclear genes 18S, 28S, Ef1a, and CAD are used to reconstruct the relationships within the Muscoidea. The length-variable genes were aligned using a guide tree that was based on the protein-encoding genes and the indel-free sections of the ribosomal genes. We found that, based on topological considerations, this guide tree was a significant improvement over the default guide trees generated by ClustalX. The data matrix was analyzed using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) and yielded very similar tree topologies. The Calyptratae are monophyletic and the Hippoboscoidea are the sister group to the remaining calyptrates (MP). The Muscoidea are paraphyletic with a monophyletic Oestroidea nested within the Muscoidea as sister group to Anthomyiidae + Scathophagidae. The monophyly of three of the four recognized families in the Muscoidea is confirmed: the Fanniidae, Muscidae, and Scathophagidae. However, the Anthomyiidae are possibly paraphyletic. Within the Oestroidea, the Sarcophagidae and Tachinidae are sister groups and the Calliphoridae are paraphyletic. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.||Source Title:||Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution||URI:||http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/53225||ISSN:||10557903||DOI:||10.1016/j.ympev.2008.08.012|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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