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Title: Enhancement or reduction of catalytic dissolution reaction in chemically amplified resists by substrate contaminants
Authors: Soo, C.P.
Valiyaveettil, S. 
Huan, A. 
Wee, A. 
Ang, T.C.
Fan, M.H.
Bourdillon, A.J. 
Chan, L.H.
Issue Date: 1999
Citation: Soo, C.P.,Valiyaveettil, S.,Huan, A.,Wee, A.,Ang, T.C.,Fan, M.H.,Bourdillon, A.J.,Chan, L.H. (1999). Enhancement or reduction of catalytic dissolution reaction in chemically amplified resists by substrate contaminants. IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 12 (4) : 462-469. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Chemical interaction of resist and substrate at the interface, which modifies the dissolution reaction, has degraded sidewall profile of resist features. Depending on the nature of the residue on the substrate, the `bottom pinching' (BP) effect and footing are observed, especially for chemically amplified (CA) resists. The BP effect is observed for CA resist on top of organic bottom antireflection coating (BARC). The BP effect is attributed to the acid generated from the underlying organic BARC. With optimization on softbake temperature of BARC, the BP effect is eliminated. On a silicon nitride surface, new chemical information has been obtained which explains `footing' and BP effects in CA resists. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements indicate that the residual alkaline molecules on the nitride surface play a major role in the formation of footing. It appears that the organic contaminants are not responsible for footing. Less severe footing is observed if the nitride surface is plasma-deposited with a thin oxide cap, which suppresses the surface basicity. However, extended plasma deposition causes resist BP. This is ascribed to the surface acidity of a newly formed oxide cap, which enhances the CA resist development process. Results show that the N (1 s) peak, after extended plasma treatment, has shifted to a higher binding state, which suggests that the nitride surface becomes acidic, causing BP.
Source Title: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
ISSN: 08946507
DOI: 10.1109/66.806124
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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