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Title: Additional validity of the Basic Language Morningness (BALM) scale
Authors: Pornpitakpan, C. 
Keywords: Chronobiology
Circadian rhythms
Human biological rhythms
Test reliability
Test validity
Issue Date: 2000
Citation: Pornpitakpan, C. (2000). Additional validity of the Basic Language Morningness (BALM) scale. Personality and Individual Differences 28 (1) : 59-72. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Basic Language Morningness (BALM) Scale on 100 Singaporean students. The α of 0.79 is comparable to that reported in Brown's study. The predictive validity of the scale is established on study schedules but not class schedules. The percentage of study time in the morning of morning type persons is higher than that of evening types whereas the percentage of study time at night of evening type persons is higher than that of morning types. Morning type individuals spend more time studying in the morning than they do at night whereas evening type individuals spend more time studying at night than they do in the morning. The shortened 7-item scale improves the full scale by deleting items that are redundant or have poor statistical properties. It retains the reliability (α = 0.70) and validity. Items 9, 11, 10, 6, and 8 load on the factor "Self-Reported Morningness-Eveningness/Voluntary Schedules". Items 12 and 5 load on the factor 'Alertness After Waking up'. Morningness scores do not differ by gender. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Personality and Individual Differences
ISSN: 01918869
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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